Appar on Human Autonomy

மரபு விக்கி இருந்து

தாவிச் செல்ல: வழிசெலுத்தல், தேடுக

The Hymns of Appar

Appar on Human Autonomy

Dear Friends,

The more I explore and understand the world religious and metaphysical traditions the more respect I begin to have for the Tamilian traditions in this matter. Not only are they the most ancient in the world, related as they are to Sumerian, but they abound with a peculiar profundity and beauty that we do NOT find elsewhere. It is rather tragic that, swept by the waves of modernisation we are losing familiarity with these metaphysical explorations that are of permanent value to mankind as a whole. Unless the mind is cultured with the purifying metaphysical thoughts , we cannot hope for political stability and material progress that seem to be the need of the times.

I have been doing my best to resuscitate this tradition in all ways I can and now I have decided to render into English with explanatory notes some of the Hymns of Appar and the other Nayanmars I have cherished from my youth. I will follow the same pattern that I follow with the Upatesams of Thirumular so that even those not suffciently fluent with Tamil can enjoy the wisdom contained in these Hymns sung not in the seclusions of social isolation but in the midst of vibrant battles to recover the essence of Tamil metaphysical wisdom.
Your comments to improve further their usefulness will be most appreciated.

Dr K.Loganathan  1997

Appar on Human Autonomy-1

98: maRumaaRRuth tiruttaaNdakam: மறுமாற்றுத் திருத்தாண்டகம்.

It is made out that it is only the Western countires that appreciate and emphasize human freedom and related matters. It is not that well known that the Dravidian India also emphasized and appreciated human freedom and we have Appar very boldly affirming this in this remarkable verse, something quite unique in world literature.
It is shown that man can be truly free and autonomous only by submitting himself totally to Siva the BEING who is wholly autonomous.
This may be a bit puzzling but the matter is well explained by Appar himself as noted below.


நாமார்க்குங் குடியல்லோம் நமனை யஞ்சோம்
நரகத்தில் இடர்படோம் நடலை யில்லோம்
ஏமாப்போம் பிணியறியோம் பணிவோ மல்லோம்
இன்பமே யெந்நாளுந் துன்ப மில்லை
தாமார்க்குங் குடியல்லாத் தன்மை யான
சங்கரன் சங்கவெண் குழையோர் காதிற்
கோமாற்கே நாமென்று மீளா ஆளாய்க்
கொய்ம்மலர் சேவடி இணையே குறுகி னோமே

naamaarkkung kudiyalloom namanai yanjcoom
narakattil idarpadoom nadalai illoom
eemaappoom piNiyaRiyoom paNivoo malloom
inbamee yennaaLun tunba millai
taamaarkkung kudiyallaat tanmai yaana
cangkaran cangkaveN kuzaiyoor kaatiR
koomaaRkkee naamenRum miiLaa aaLaayk
koymmlarcee vadi iNaiyee kuRukinoomee

ஓர் சிறிய நாட்டின் தலைவனாக இருக்கும் யாருக்கும் அடிபணிந்து அந்நாட்டின் குடியாக இருக்கமாட்டோம், அவ்வாறு செய்யுங்கால் தண்டித்து கொலை நோக்கோடு வந்தாலும் நமனை அஞ்சோம்; பலவித தண்டனைகள் கொடுத்து வாழ்க்கையை நரகமாக்கினாலும் இடர்படோம் , நடுங்கவுஞ் செய்யோம்; எச்சூழ்நிலையிலும் மனங்குழையாது ஏமாப்புடனேயே இஇருப்போம், எவ்வகையான பிணியும் அறியோம் என்பதின் பணிவோம் அல்லோம்; யாது நடந்தாலும் அது இன்பமே எந்நாளும் துன்பமில்லை. இவ்வாறு நாம் இருப்பதற்கு காரணம் தாம் யார்க்கும் குடியல்லாத சர்வ சுதந்திரத் தன்மையான அர்த்தநாரீ வடிவத்து வெண்குழையோர் காதில் அணிந்திருக்கும் சங்கரனை நம் தலைவராய்க் கொண்டு, அவனுக்கே மீளா ஆளாய் நின்று அவனது மலர்களைப் போன்ற சேவடிகளைத் தொழுவதற்கே நாம் குறுகினோம் என்பதால் என்றறிக


No one is subject to anyone and we shall NOT fear the God of death
We shall not suffer the fire of Hell and any kind of misfortunes
Forever in self dignity and free of ailments , we shall NOT submit to anyone
There is only happiness and no sufferings at all for
We have become totally people of unredeemable servitude to the King of Supreme Autonomy
Who wearing in one ear the brilliant white conch, appears as the Sangkaran, the redeemer of all
And have submitted ourselves to His FEET of fresh blossoms

naamaarkkung kudiyalloom: No one is subject to anyone

namanai yanjcoom: we shall not fear even the God of Death

narakattil idarpadoom : We shall NOT suffer the fire of Hell

nadalai illoom: we are free also from any kind of misfortunes

eemaappoom piNiyaRiyoom: forever in self dignity and free of ailments

paNivoo malloom : and we shall NOT submit to anyone

inbamee yennaaLun tunba millai: there is only happiness and no sufferings at all

taamaarkkung kudiyallaath tanmai yaana : BEING who as the KING is supremely autonomous

cangkaran cangkaveN kuzaiyoor kaatiR: The Sangkaran , the redeemer of all wearing a brilliant white conch in one of His ears

koomaaRkkee naamenRum miiLaa aaLaayk: to this KING we have become totally people of unredeemable servitude

koymalar ceevadi iNaiyee kuRukinoomee : have submitted ourselves to His FEET of fresh blossoms


The anma as a psychic entity exists always identifying itself with something or other and hence always in bondage. In social existence we are also in servitude to either the king or social or cultic leaders . But such individuals and things are ENSLAVING and to be thus enslaved is NOT the essence of the anmas. All anmas are destined to live FREE and supremely AUTONOMOUS. But how is this possible? Only by becoming totally submissive towards BEING.
But isn't this another kind of servitude?
No for BEING is an integral whole and as such Supremely FREE and hence anyone who comes close to HIM become like HIM, like coal becoming fire inside the fire. Our essence to be FREE and TOTALLY autonomus from all the worldly powers whether political social or religious and this is existentially possible only in metaphysical kind of existence where we are in close proximity with BEING and doing only things that would endear ourselves to HIM. This life CLOSE TO HIM is life in eternity , in saturated Wholeness and hence free of any cravings that would bring enslaveries miseries sufferings feelings of guilt and hellish tortures because of all these. It is NOT only life in PURITY but also in LIGHT and hence always happy with contentment.
Appar here outlines the political philosophy that can be called MEATAPOLTICS, the kind of political life that caters NOT for just economic prosperity but for spiritual upliftment and hence a political organisation in which no human being can set up himself as the ruler with absolute powers . The real KING is BEING and all who are devoted to him , icluding the politiocal leaders are equally HIS subjects.
HE being the real king, the tortures and threats that a local political leader can issue forth become powerless and not intimidating at all.

Appar on Human Autonomy-2

In this verse Appar argues beautifully that genuine freedom is NOT the earthly political freedom with the rights for freedom of expression and so forth but rather metaphysical freedom where one is obliged to the dictates of BEING and no one else.

98: maRumaaRRuth tiruttaaNdakam: மறுமாற்றுத் திருத்தாண்டகம்.

அகலிடமே இடமாக ஊர்கள் தோறும்
அட்டுண்பார் இட்டுண்பார் விலக்கார் ஐயம்
புகலிடமாம் அம்பலங்கள் பூமிதேவி
யுடன் கிடந்தால் புரட்டாள் பொய் யன்று மெய்யே
இகலுடைய விடையுடையான் ஏன்று கொண்டான்
இனியேதுங் குறைவிலோம் இடர்கள் தீர்ந்தோம்
துகிலுடுத்துப் பொன்பூண்டு திரிவார் சொல்லும்
சொற்கேட்கக் கடவோமோ துரிசற் றோமே

akalidamee idamaaka uurkaL thooRum
adduNbaar idduNbaar vilakkaar aiyam
pukalidamaam ambalangkaL puumiteevi
yudan kidantaal puraddaaL poyyanRu meyyee
ikaludaidaiyan vidaiyudaiyaan eenRu koNdaan
iniyeetung kuRaiviloom idarkaL tiirntoom
tukiluduttup ponpuuNdu tirivaar collum
coRkeedkak kadavoomoo turisaR Romee.

சிவலோகத்தை மெய்யென்று கருதாது இந்த அற்ப உலகையே இடமாகக் கொண்டு ஊர்கள் தோறும் திரிந்து பொருள் ஈட்டி அட்டுண்பார் மேலும் பிறருக்கு இட்டுண்பார் , அகத்துச் செறிந்திருக்கும் மூல ஐயத்தை நீக்கார். இப்படி இருப்பினும் புகலிடமாக திருசிற்றம்பலத்தையேக் கொண்டு வாழ்ந்தால், பூதேவியும் மயக்கத்தைத் தந்து புரட்டாள், இ இது பொய்யன்று மெய்யே. எல்லா ஆற்றல்களையும் தன்னிடம் வைத்துள்ள ஏறுவை தனது வாகனமாகக் கொண்டுள்ள சங்கரன், நம்மை தன் அடியாராக ஏற்றுகொண்டான். அதனால் இனியேதும் குறைகள் இல்லோம், எல்லா இடர்களையும் தீர்ந்தோம். அவ்வாறிருக்க ஆடம்பரமான துகில் உடுத்தியும் பொன் பூண்டும் அற்ப செல்வச் செழிப்பில் திரிவார் சொல் கேட்டு நடக்கும் கடப்பாடு இல்லோம், இதனால் மனதில் எல்லாவகை துரிசும் அற்றோம்.


Those who are locked up in this wide world and live
cooking meals and giving alms will never clear the metaphysical doubts
But should they access the metaphysical realms and also continue with the Earth-Woman
She will not deceive one with delusions and there will be only truths
And the Powerful BEING with the BULL as his symbol has allowed me this access
We are not in want of anything henceforth and are freed of problems and
Hence because of the PURITY we enjoy, we are not obliged to listen to the dictates of the worldly individuals
Who go about brandishing wearing silken attire and golden ornaments
akalidamee idamaaka uurkaL thooRum : Those who are locked up in this wide earthly world and live
adduNbaar idduNbaar vilakkaar aiyam: cooking meals and giving alms will never clear the metaphysical doubts
pukalidamaam ambalangkaL puumiteevi yudan kidantaal: but should they access the metaphysical realms and also continue to live with the Earth-Woman;
puraddaaL poyyanRu meyyee: she will not deceive anymore with delusions and there will be witnessing only truths;
ikaludaidaiyan vidaiyudaiyaan eenRu koNdaan: the Powerful BEING with BULL as His symbol has allowed this access to me;
iniyeethung kuRaiviloom idarkaL tiirntoom: and hence we are not in want of anything and are freed also of all problems;
tukiluduttup ponpuuNdu tirivaar collum: those who are still earthly and who go about brandishing wearing silken cloths and golden ornaments;
coRkeedkak kadavoomoo turisaR Romee: because of the PURITY we are enjoying, we are NOT obliged to listen to such individuals and do as they dictate.


The political life, as founded upon various kinds of earthly needs , the economical cultural and social, is always enslaving. The FREEDOM within socio-political life is NOT genuine freedom for there will always be rules and regulations and institutions for enforcing them and punishing the deviant if necessary. The political leaders caught up in this earthly world given over to the physical needs, will demand obedience for the easy and smooth running of the country. The FREEDOM they can offer is always conditional-- it should NOT be used to uproot and wipe out the ruling power.
But all these needs to be obliged and be submissive in this and that is no more when an individual enters the metaphysical world, the mantra-world where begins metaphysical existence that CLARIFIES the primordial existential doubts beyond the reach of the earthly life. The ACCESS into metaphysical by the clarities it provides makes the earthly existence UNIMPORTANT and because of that quite irrelevant. One can continue to live in the world but now with such a kind of existence there will NOT be anymore DELUSIONS and Falsities but only the witnessing of TRUTHS. With this newly gained privilege that the access into the metaphysical world, one becomes FREE from earthly and the socio-political demands. One is NO MORE a citizen of a country under the leadership of a political head but FREE in the vicinity of BEING, the most Powerful. The existential obligations are NO MORE towards the KING, the leader of the earthly economic life but rather towards BEING who confers the Supreme Illumination by freeing oneself from the fetters.

In this Appar claims that BEING has granted him this access and he is FREE from the dictates of any political leader no matter how powerful he is.

He does not deny the need to live the political life. But the political as conditioned by the access to the metaphysical FREES one from the DELUSIONS so that only TRUTHS the life of the nations and the political community.

Appar on Human Autonomy-3
Appar was essentially trans-national as were almost all the great Tamil philosophers. We have the classic slogan Yaatum Uuree YavaruG KeeLir: The whole world is my city and all are my kinsmen.
In this remarkable verse Appar provides metaphysical insights into the thinking of such a person where he links it up with political freedom. Such an individual is essentially trans-national

Appar 1-3

வாராண்ட கொங்கையர்சேர் மனையிற் சேரோம்
மாதேவா மாதேவா என்று வாழ்த்தி
நீராண்ட புரோதயம் ஆடப் பெற்றோம்
நீறணியுங் கோலமே நிகழப் பெற்றோம்
காராண்ட மழைபோலக் கண்ணீர் சோரக்
கன்மனமே நன்மனமாய்க் கரையப் பெற்றோம்
பாராண்டு பகடேறி வருவார் சொல்லும்
பணிகேட்க கடவோமோ பற்றற் றோமே

vaaraaNda kongkaiyarceer maniyiR ceeroom
maateevaa maateevaa enRu vaaztti
niiraanda purootayam aadap peRRoom
niiRaNiyung koolamee nikazap peRRoom
kaaraaNda mazaipoolak kaNNiir coorak
kanmanamee nanmanamaayk karaiyaip peRRoom
paaraaNdu pakadeeRi varuvaar collum
paNikeedka kadavoomoo paRRaR Roomee!

மார்பினை வார்கொண்டு இறுகக் கட்டியிருக்கும் இளம்பெண்களோடு நடத்தும் மனைவாழ்க்கை விட்டோம்; அனுதினமும் விடியலின் போது மாதேவா! மாதேவா! என்று வாழ்த்தி நீராடலையே வழக்கமாகப் பெற்றோம். அகச் சுத்தத்தினைக் காட்டும் நீறணியுங் கோலமே கோலமாக ஆடப்பெற்றோம்; மேலும் அகத்து எழு கருணையின் காரணமாக உலகமக்கள் பால் நிறைந்த அன்பு பூண்டு அவர்கள் துன்பங்களைக் கண்டு மனங்கரைந்து மழைபோல கண்ணீர் விடவும் பெற்றோம். இவ்வாறு தனக்கெனும் எல்லாப் பற்றுக்களையும் நீக்கி இருப்பதன் காராணமாக பாராண்டு யானைகள் மேல் ஏறி உலாவரும் அரசர்களின் பணிகேட்கும் ஆள் நாம் அல்லோம்.

We are NOT obliged to listen and obey the words of the kings
who may rule the world and ride on elephants in royal pomposity
For we have dissolved all worldly desires and also
having forsaken even family life with a women with belted-breasts
Are given to early dips in the cool waters along with the early sunrise
chanting Maateeva! Maateeva and wearing only the sacred ashes and with these
melt the stone-like heart with LOVE for all and shed tears like the pouring rains.

vaaraaNda kongkaiyarceer maniyiR ceeroom: we have forsaken family life with a belt-breasted( and hence young) woman
maateevaa maateevaa enRu vaaztti: chanting Maateeva! Maateeva!
niiraanda purootayam aadap peRRoom: we are given over to dips in the cool waters along with the early sunrise
niiRaNiyung koolamee nikazap peRRoom: never forgetting to wear only the sacred ashes
kaaraaNda mazaipoolak kaNNiir coorak: shedding tears like the rain that pours from the dark clouds,
kanmanamee nanmanamaayk karaiyaip peRRoom: we allow the stony heart melt with LOVE for all and become good
paaraaNdu pakadeeRi varuvaar collum paNikeedka kadavoomoo: We are not obliged to listen and do as told to the words of the kings who may rule the world and ride on elephants in (royal) pomposity
paRRaR Roomee! : we have dissolved all attachments.

As long as one continues to live still the bodily existence, the forgetting of the metaphysical is always possible. The symbolic life, taken in the right spirit just serves to maintain oneself firmly in the metaphysical existence overcoming this forgetfulness. But this symbolic life is very simple at least to the genuinely metaphysical individuals such as Appar. It involves chanting the sacred name of Maateevaa and dipping in the cool waters along with the sunrise: a symbolic act of regeneration, the desire to become a NEW person everyday by becoming purer and purer. The desires for becoming PURE through gaining metaphysical illuminations is symbolised by the wearing of the sacred ASHES, the symbol of absolute PURITY for the ashes are peculiar -- even burnt it remains the same.
But all these are possible only if the mind is TOTALLY absorbed in the metaphysical realms and for which family life that still remains sexually active is transcended. This involves the transmutation of the sexual libido itself into metaphysical libido, the Iccaa Sakthi into Njana Sakthi which is another meaning of the Sacred Ashes so important in the Saivite way of Life.
But what is the use of all these? Appar has explained this in many places: to MELT the HEART that remains like a stone with lovelessness, a heart that has NO COMPASSION and MERCY for the suffering. The real purpose of genuine metaphysical life is to become one full of LOVE and COMPASSION ready to shed tears like the pouring rains at the sight human sufferings.
The narrow sex-dominated family is transcended only to own the WHOLE WORLD as one's family. Now this accomplishment of genuine metaphysical life also LIBERATES a person from his political moorings and hence such a person is NOT AT ALL obliged to listen to the political leaders, no matter how powerful and pompous they are for their suzerainty does not extend beyond the confines of his narrow nation. How can a person who has become a citizen of the whole universe descend to the level of a nationhood?

Appar on Human Autonomy-4

Appar 1.4
Appar was a great warrior but not for political freedom but for metaphysical freedom. His battles are first with himself, with his own earthly desires and evil propensities and secondly for TRUTH and which he saw in Saivism. He was interested along the way in gaining Moksa and become free from being thrown back into existential repetition.
But he was great warrior and all dictated not for some personal and egoistic reasons but as dictated wholly by BEING to whom he became totally subservient. The Ahimsa war be fought so bravely was in fact the battle of Siva himself where the soldiers were the Uruttira KaNam, the company of rudras, the celestial warriors who act in the mind of even the foes and transform them into friendly and kind people.
Such a great Baktas like Appar have always a huge army of such celestial warriors helping them out knowing which they fight fiercely and without any FEAR at all.
For this reason they also never fail.

உறவாவார் உருத்திரபல் கணத்தி னோர்கள்
உடுப்பன கோவணத்தோடு கீள் உளவா மன்றே
செறுவாருஞ் செறமாட்டார் தீமை தானும்
நன்மையாச் சிறப்பதே பிறப்பிற் செல்லோம்
நறவார்பொன் னிதழிநறுந் தாரோன் சீரார்
நமச்சிவாயச் சொல்ல வல்லோம் நாவால்
சுறவாருங் கொடியானைப் பொடியாக் கண்ட
சுடர்நயனச் சோதியையே தொடர் வுற்றோமே

uRavaavaar uruttirapal kaNatti noorkaL
uduppana koovaNattoodu kiiL uLaavaa manRee
ceRuvaarunj ceRamaaddaar tiimai taanum
nanmaiyaac ciRappatee piRaippiR celloom
naRavaar pon nitazinaRuntaaroon ciiraar
namaccivaayac colla valloom naavaal
cuRavaarung kodiyaanaip podiyaak kaNda
cudar nayanac cootiyaiyee thodar vuRRoomee

மறையாக நின்றிலங்கும் மந்திர சக்திகளாகிய உருத்திர கணங்கள் என் உதவிக்கு வரும் உறவாவார். ஏனெனில் நமக்கு வேண்டியதாக இருப்பது மெய்த் துறவின் கோவணமும் கீளும்தான். இந்த உருத்திர கணங்கள் உறவாக இருக்க என்னோடு சண்டையிட வருபவரும் சண்டையிடாது செல்வர்; தீமை செய்ய வருவாரும் நன்மை செய்துவிட்டே செல்வர். வீடுபேறு நோக்கிச் செல்வோம் அல்லால் மீண்டும் பிறப்பெடுக்கும் வழி செல்லோம். ஏனெனில் நல்ல நறவு விளங்கும் பொன்மாலை சூடியவனாக விளங்கும் சிவபெருமானை நமச்சிவாய என்னும் மந்திரத்தால் ஓதி தெளிதல் பெற்றோம். மேலும் காமத்தை உற்பவிக்கும் சுறவுக் கொடி மன்மதனை எரித்து சாம்பாலாக்கும் நுதல்விழி நாட்டத்து இறைவனை உள்ளான் என்று அறிந்து அவனை யாண்டும் தொழவும் பெற்றோம்.


Because we have managed to ascend to the stage where
we see everything with the brilliant Third Eye of BEING that
Powdered to dust the antics of the Cupid having as his flag the Shark
We have as our aids the whole lot of the celestial warriors and
Have for wearing only loin clothes and rags that are not at all pompous and because of which
even those who wish to attack us become subdued and even the evils they wish to do
Become in fact good. And these because we want to escape the karma that causes rebirth
And furthermore we are blessed by BEING who appears as the one wearing
The golden garland of honeyed flowers of pleasant fragrance, a life where we become capable of
uttering continuosly the mantra NAMACIVAYA (that establishes us in universality)

uRavaavaar uruttirapal kaNatti noorkaL: the celestial warriors will become our (earthly) aids
uduppana koovaNattodu kiiL uLaavaa manRee: what we have for wearing are only loin clothes
ceRuvaanj ceRamaaddaar : even those who want to attack us will become subdued
tiimai taanum nanmaiyaac ciRappatee : even the evils that people want to do in fact shine forth as the good
piRaippiR celloom: we escape the karma that causes rebirth
naRavaar pon nitazinaRuntaaroon ciiraar namaccivaaya: The mantra NAMACIVAYA of BEING who appears as the one wearing golden garland of honeyed flowers of pleasant fragrance
colla valloom naavaal : we become capable of uttering that
cuRavaarung kodiyaanaip podiyaak kaNda: powdered to dust the antics of the Cupid having as his flag the Shark
cudar nayanac cootiyaiyee thodar vuRRoomee: we have attained seeing with the brilliant Third Eye of BEING (that shows only truth)

It is impossible to bring forth the whole range of meanings buried in the metaphors and mythologies alluded to here. Suffice to say that Appar here outlines the basic motives of all metaphysical struggles of man which is also the primordial purpose of Human Existence as such i.e. the attainment of SEEING with the Third Eye of BEING Himself, the discarding of seeing with the human fleshy eyes and seeing everything in the glow of the Third Eye that only BEING can bless one with. All we human beings can do is to become FIT for this blessings and which requires that we become CLOSE TO BEING by allowing us to be transmuted into his form offering no resistances at all.
And His genuine form is one of PURITY , a purity where worldly desires are sundered and singed to ashes. The Manmathan , the Indian Cupid, is the archetype of sexual desires, that which keeps the Kundalini forever as the sexual libido. His antics are symbolically shown by the flag of the SHARK, for earthly desires function like sharks, ready to kill anyone who gets into its sharp jaws. There is NO ESCAPE from early and untimely death for those who wallow in the earthly pleasures as if they are the real pleasures.
This severance from the antics of manmatan is SHOWN by a life of simplicity where there is the avoidance of even wearing pompous attire such as those of the political leaders who thrive by thrilling the crowds with such pomposities. There is no showmanship to impress the crowd and maintain them in AWE so that their political control over them can continue as ever.
But this dissociation with political power and hence the securities that the armies and other defences provide, does not mean one becomes weak lacking in security. For now the whole lot of celestial beings , seen here as the Rudra KaNam, i.e warrior gods come to the aid fighting on their behalf with all the enemy forces. Such detached individuals may have become isolated and single but NOT LONELY for unknown to the naked human eyes the whole lot of the celestial warriors are there as their aids.
And very importantly, their ACTIONS actually become the Malarcci VinaikaL, the actions of BEING Himself and hence actions that are NOT instrumental at all. Whatever effected are actions with BEING as their agents and only because of this the Ego becomes completely WITHDRAWN. And this withdrawal and allowing oneself function totally egoless and hence only as a locale of BEING ensures the non accumulation of Karma that throws one into an endless phenomenal circulation, the earthly life with unending existential repetition.
It is only at this stage that the meaningful utterance of SIVAYANAMA, the mantra of Universal Processes that sustains both the phenomenal and noumenal world , becomes possible for a person. This is the Mantra that keeps the mind forever in UNIVERSALITY and the benefits of which are symbolised as the garland of honeyed golden flowers of supremely fine and pleasant fragrance. These metaphors stand for the exultations, the Bliss that one enjoys or tastes as one continues a life as one capable of uttering openly the Namacivaya Mantra.

Appar on Human Autonomy-5
As one grows old and the vigour of youth departs, for most people male or female a meaninglessness sets in making life quite miserable.
In this verse Appar notes that a life of joys and contentment is a gift, a blessing of BEING provided one fights fiercely for JUSTICE, both political and metaphysical.
One of the most interesting images of Siva, quite terrible at the surface, that of wearing a garland of skulls, is elucidated to mean that a divine life is quite consistent with aggressive battles where one may even be killed. Appar was such a warrior though he was not killed by the Pallava King of his times and survived through divine interference.
More elucidations of metaphysical insights through a hermeneutic semiotic analysis of the various mythical themes Appar mentions below in the commentary.

Appar 1.5

என்றும்நாம் யாவர்க்கும் இஇடைவோ மல்லோம்
இஇருநிலத்தில் எமக்கெதிரா வாரு மில்லை
சென்றுநாம் சிறுதெய்வம் சேர்வோ மல்லோம்
சிவபெருமான் திருவடியே சேரப் பெற்றோம்
ஒன்றினாற் குறையுடையோ மல்லோ மன்றே
உறுபிணியார் செறலொழிந்திட் டோடிப் போனார்
பொன்றினார் தலைமாலை யணிந்த சென்னிப்
புண்ணியனை நண்ணியபுண் ணியத்து ளோமே.

enRumnaam yaavarkkum idaivoo malloom
irunilattil emakketiraa vaaru millai
cenRunaam ciRuteyvam ceervoo malloom
civaperumaan tiruvadiyee ceerap peRRoom
onRinaaR kuRaiyudaiyoo malloo manRee
uRupiNiyaar ceRalozintid doodip poonaar
ponRinaar talaimaalai yaNinta cennip
puNNiyanai naNNiyapuN Niyat tuLoomee

We are ever with the blessings of BEING of all blessings who
wears as the head-garland a string of skulls and we are
Because of that NOT any lesser to anyone and furthermore
There are NONE equal to us in this wide world for we avoid
The worshipping of the little gods and abide forever at the FEETof BEING , the GREAT and
Because of this we are NOT LACKING in anything knowing very well that
Those who dispute all these disappear having lost all their might.

ஆணவச் செருக்கின் அகந்தை மாந்தர்களை வெல்வான் என்று உணர்த்தும் தலைமாலை அணிந்த சென்னியின் சிவபெருமானை, அந்த புண்ணியனை விரும்பித் தொழும் புண்ணியத்துள் நாம் இ இருக்கின்றோம். அதனால் நாம் என்றுமே யாருக்கும் கீழானவர் அல்ல என்பதொடு எமக்கு சமமாக எதிர்த்து நிற்பார் இஇந்த பரந்த உலகில் யாவருமில்லை. எப்படிப்பட்ட சூழ்நிலையிலும் தெய்வங்களின் தெய்வமாகிய அந்த மாதேவனை அல்லாது சிறுதெய்வங்களாகிய மன்னர்கள போன்றாரை மதித்துத் தொழவே மாட்டோம். இ இதனால் உலக வின்பத்தில் குறையுடையோம் என்று நினைப்பீராயின், அப்படியில்லை -- ஒன்றினாலும் குறையுடையோம் அல்லோம். மேலும் சிவபெருமானை தொழுவதை எதிர்த்து மனப்பிணி கொண்டு வம்பிற்கு வருவார் அனைவரும் தம் திறனிழந்து அழிந்து போவர் என்பதையும் அறிவோம்.

enRumnaam yaavarkkum idaivoo malloom: We are not ever and anywhere lesser to anyone
irunilattil emakketiraa vaaru millai: there are NONE equal to us in this wide world
cenRunaam ciRuteyvam ceervoo malloom: we shall never go and worship the little gods
civaperumaan tiruvadiyee ceerap peRRoom: we forever abide at the FEET of Siva, the BEING supreme
onRinaaR kuRaiyudaiyoo malloo manRee : and because of this we are NOT lacking in anything
uRupiNiyaar ceRalozintid doodip poonaar, ponRinaar : those who challenge us with sickly mind have lost and disappeared
talaimaalai yaNinta cennip : the BEING who wears as HIS head-garland a string of skulls
puNNiyanai naNNiyapuN Niyath tuLoomee: we are in the blessings of the BEING of all blessings

In this verse Appar articulates very succinctly the elements of metaphysical courage, the primordial impulse towards martyrdom that we see also in many other world religions. The symbolism of head-garland of skulls is certainly very primitive and may appear as a sign of hidden savagery. But taken as a symbolism of the metaphysical life it means something different and stands for HEROISM that is certainly part of metaphysical life. Siva, the BEING most often appears as the DESTROYER; for the EVILS in the world must be DESTROYED in order for the DIVINE to rule. In the world, particularly in the political life there is always MORAL CONFLICTS with tyrannical individuals trying to suppress and repress the common people in order to enjoy being worshiped by them as earthly gods. The powerful individuals whether in politics or religion want to USURP the place of BEING and want to enthrone themselves as the GOD almighty to whom the people must submit unquestioningly. Such arrogant individuals must be FOUGHT WITH even if it means death and Appar stands out as one who did it and emerged not a martyr but a HERO who vanquished all his foes, they being the Jains of the times among whom was the mighty Pallava emperor who wanted to subdue him and threatened to kill him towards that.
For Appar such individuals are the little gods whom, he says , the worshippers of SIVA, the BEING Supreme will NEVER at all worship. To worship BEING means not worshiping anything below BEING whether they are deities or mighty kings trying to become deities. The worship of BEING is the HIGHEST and hence woshipping anything else would mean a FALL, submitting to the pull that pulls one DOWN.
Now it should also be noted that BEING as LOVE cannot be a head-hunter and hence gruesome as some hasty individuals would immediately say. The symbolism of chopping off the head which is MYTHOLOGICAL is like a DREAM-IMAGE where it means the REPLACEMENT of the head of IGNORANCE with the head of ILLUMINATION. BEING only TRANSMUTES and purifies by replacing the existing evil-prone personality with something purer and more divine. The political and metaphysical struggles all over the world have this as the underlying transpersonal meaning!
And to be blessed with this archetypal presentation of BEING is the supreme reward the metaphysically courageous individuals earn and which makes them feel they are NOT below anybody but rather ABOVE them and that they are NOT lacking at all in anything. For the capacity to DEFEAT all the foes also means earning the RIGHTS to enjoy all the PLEASURES of life that provides genuine FULFILLMENT. The GOOD in life pertains only to the heroic individuals just like only the brave youth who defeats the bull wins over the heart and the hands of the most beautiful damsel.
The genuine and everlasting happiness is a REWARD and it is enjoyed only by the truly valiant and that too only at the end of their metaphysical battles and emerge a HERO in that.

Appar on Human Autonomy-6
It is in the context of studying this remarkable Patikam, quite unique in the world literature that I coined the word Metapolitics to distinguish it from the ordinary politics of the earthly kings and warriors.
Appar also mentions non-violence as Kadumai aRRal and absence of greed for earthly possessions as KaLavu aRRal.
The wars in metapolitics are bloodless and are designed to transform people rather than kill them.

Appar 1.6

மூவுருவின் முதலுருவாய் இருநான் கான
மூர்த்தியே யென்றுமுப் பத்து மூவர்
தேவர்களும் மிக்கோருஞ் சிறந்து வாழ்த்தும்
செம்பளத் திருமேனிச் சிவனே யென்னும்
நாவுடையார் நமையாள வுடையா ரன்றே
நாவலந்தீ வகத்தினுக்கு நாத ரான
காவலரே யேவி விடுத்தா ரேனுங்
கடவமல்லோம் கடுமையொடு களவற் றோமே

muuvuruvin mutaluruvaay irunaan kaana
muurttiyee yenRumup pattu muuvar
teevarkaLum mikkorunj ciRantu vaazttum
cempalLavat tirumeeni civanee ennum
naavudaiyaar namaiyaaLa vudaiyaa ranRee
naavalantii vakattinukku naata raana
kaavalaree yeevi viduttaa reenung
kadavamalloom kadumaiyodu kaLavaR Roomee

As long as we remain blessed with the name of CIVA forever in the mouth and
Who rules us standing with us as the brilliantly red BEING of absolute PURITY
BEING who stands as the most primordial of the THREE major archetypal presentations and
Also emerges as the UNIVERSE and hence ONE with eight forms and praised as such
By the thirty three devas and such other celestial beings
We are NOT obliged to obey the royal commands not just of this king but even the king of the whole wide world
For we are FREE of VIOLANCE as well as GREED to own lands and properties, and snatching it from others.

அரன் அரி அயன் என்னும் மூவுருவின் முதலாகவும் , இந்த பரந்த பிரபஞ்சமே தானாக நிற்கும் அட்டமூர்த்தியாகவும், இப்படி முப்பத்துமுக்கோடி தேவர்களாலும் இருடி கணங்களாலும் "செம்பளத் திருமேனி சிவனே!" என்று போற்றித் தொழப்படும் வகையில் அப்போற்றி யாவர் நாவில் விடாது விளங்குகிறதோ அவர்களை ஆள்பவனாக இச்சிவனே விளங்குகின்றான். அதனின் அகத்தே வன்முறை பயிலத் தரும் கடுமையும் நாடுகளையும் பிறர் உடைமைகளையும் அபகரித்துக் கொள்ளவேண்டும் என்ற களவுச் சிந்தையும் இல்லாது போக, இந்த நாட்டின் வேந்தன் மாத்திரம் அல்ல இஇந்த உலகத்தையே ஆளும் வேந்தனாகிலும் ஓர் ஆணை பிறப்பித்தால் அதற்கு அடங்கியோர் நாம் அல்லோம்.

muuvuruvin mutaluruvaay: The most primordial of the THREE major presentations as Aran Ari and Ayan
irunaan kaana muurttiyee : thou art also the BEING who has become this universe assuming the Eight Fold forms
yenRumup pattu muuvar teevarkaLum mikkorunj ciRantu vaazttum : thus being praised by the thirty three devas and other celestiall beings
cempalLavat tirumeeni civanee ennum: BEING with a form of glowing RED
naavudaiyaar namaiyaaLa vudaiyaa ranRee: those who are blessed to utter thus are also ruled by HIM
naavalantii vakattinukku naata raana kaavalaree yeevi viduttaa reenung : even if commanded by the King of the whole world
kadavamalloom : we are NOT obliged to obey
kadumaiyodu kaLavaR Roomee: for we are FREE of Violence and GREED

One cannot but lament the utter neglect of serious and modern studies among the Tamils with regard to the wisdom buried in their ancient literature particularly the the Sacred Tamil hymns. They are just sung as if they are simply prayers, mantras of a kind and in this FAIL to notice the enormous metaphysical insights they embody and how these metaphysical insights were gained in the course of IMMENSE SOCIAL STRUGGLES against the various forces of reppression and suppression. And here in this verse we have the philosophy of Satyagraha being articulated not simply by an appeal to Ahimsa but rather with the UNDERSTADING of the real roots of political wars and for which purpose such wars are waged by the kings.
For the local politics , as opposed to the metapolitics that Appar fought for and articulates in this patikam, is founded upon VIOLANCE and GREED and hence economical and egological- the craze for enjoying POWER over others and amass wealth as for oneself. The phrase Kadumai ARRal stands for non-violance and the practice of Ahimsa and KaLavu ARRal, that of absence of greed to take possession of the lands and wealth of others as our own. When these desires are rooted out from the heart, the primordial impulses towards political wars cease to be there and a person who has ALREADY REACHED this state of Being-in-the-world can never be part of this local politics. He transcends such political membership not just to his own nation but FOR ANY king and hence for any nation whatever. The entry into the realm of metapolitics transposes an individual into another world beyond the reach of the power crazy and economically greedy kings no matter how mighty they are.
And what accomplishes this transposition?
The acceptance of BEING , who rules this vast universe including the celestial, is also the one who rules oneself from within. But why in this context the name Civa and that he GLOWS in RED is mentioned at all?
For CIVA as LOVE only breeds LOVE and compassion and hence institutes a non-violent disposition in the hearts of whoever understands HIM as thus and keeps on muttering that NAME as a way of firming oneself in that way of Being. And the RED glow signifies the burning of ALL DESIRES and hence becoming PURE without any GREED.
The worship of BEING as such is NOT just simply transformational, it is also immensely UPLIFTING, it TRANSPOSES one into the realms of metapolitics by FREEING one from political bondages founded upon violence and economic greed. This transposition is also PURIFYING self from all the elements within that urge on an individual with all kinds of mundane desires, even of the religious kind that seek to enslave the mind of others.

Appar on Human Autonomy-7

This verse again is very profound with deep metaphysical insights that later became adumbrated by Tirumular Meykandar and a host of Dravidian philosophers. Here we have the arresting line: taanum yaanum aakinRa tanmaiyanai : (BEING) who is capable of both to be wholly Himself and at the same time wholly myself
This became the substance of the second sutra of Botham that begins with Avaiyee taaneeyaay etc where he explains the ethical foundations of all human beings and its link with the development of a person towards Moksa.
We have also the occurrence of the technical term Catasiva that became very important for Tirumular.
It appears that deep metaphysical insights emerge only in the context of great political struggles and at great personal sacrifices.

Appar 1.7

நிற்பனவும் நடப்பனவும் நிலனும் நீரும்
நெருப்பினொடு காற்றாகி நெடுவா னாகி
அற்பமொடு பெருமையுமாய் அருமை யாகி
அன்புடையார்க் கெளிமையதாய் அளக்கலாகாத்
தற்பரமாய்ச் சதாசிவமாய்த் தானும் யானும்
ஆகின்ற தன்மையனை நன்மையோடும்
பொற்புடைய பேசக் கடவோம் பேயர்
பேசுவன பேசுதுமே பிழையற் றோமே

niRpanavum nadappanavum nilanum niirum
nerupppinodu kaaRRaaki neduvaa naaki
aRpamodu perumaiyumaay arumai yaaki
anbudaiyaark keLimaiyathaay aLakkalaakaat
taRparamaay cataacivamaayt taanum yaanum
aakinRa tanmaiyanai nanmaiyoodum
poRpudaiya peesak kadavoom peeyar
peecuvana peecutumee pizaiyaR Roomee

அசையாது நிற்பன அசைந்து நடப்பனவாகிய உயிர்களாகவும் உயிரற்ற அசித்துக்களாக நிலன் நீர் நெருப்பு காற்று நெடுவான் ஆகிய ஐம்பூதங்கள் தானாகவும் மேலும் குணங்களில் அற்பமொடு பெருமையானதாகவும் மேலும் அருமையாக அடைதற்குரியதாகவும் விளங்கும் இறைவனை; சாத்திரம் ஓதி கூர்த்தமதியால் அறியவொண்ணாதவனாக , அன்புடையர்க்கே எளிமையனாக , எந்தவித அளவைகளாலும் இன்னான் இத்தன்மையன் என்று அளக்கலாகாத்தன்மையின் ஆகவே அப்பாலுக்கப்பால் நிற்கின்ற தற்பரமாய் ஆனால் அதே பொழுது இப்பால் யாங்கும் யாண்டும் நிற்கின்ற சதாசிவமாய் ஆகின்ற ஐயனை, தானேயாய் தனித்து யானேயாய் கலந்தும் நிற்க வல்லானை, போற்றிப் புகழ்ந்து துதித்து பேசக்கடவோமாகிய யாம், பொருள் நச்சி அரசர்கட்கு அடிபணிந்து அவர்கள் விரும்புமாறு பேயர்கள் போல் பேசக் கடவோம் அல்லோம் என்பதொடு இவ்வாறு மறுப்பது பிழையற்றது என்றும் அறிவோம்.

We are given over to praising with understanding the BEING who pervades both the mobile and immobile creatures, the physical world of earth water fire wind and vast sky; BEING who founds the psychological qualities of good and the bad as well those that are rare to achieve; BEING despite being immeasurable in terms of any conceptual categories but remains someone who can easily be understood by those who develop LOVE ; BEING though the WHOLLY OTHER and beyond the reach of the human mind is THERE as Cataaciva, BEING-as- the -WORLD and all in it; BEING who is while capable of being ALONE as HE is HIMSELF is also capable of being what I am. When we are destined to praise BEING as such how can we talk like the mad crowd the words that please the worldly kings? In denying such a kind of speech, we also know that we are NOT in the wrong

niRpanavum nadappanavum : BEING who stands as the mobile and immobile sentient creatures
nilanum niirum nerupppinodu kaaRRaaki neduvaa naaki: the earth , the waters, the fire, the wind and the vast sky
aRpamodu prumaiyumaay arumai yaaki: the qualities the good and bad as well as the rare to achieve
anbudaiyaark keLimaiyathaay : easy to understand only for those full of LOVE
aLakkalaakaat taRparamaay : the WHOLLY OTHER and beyond the reach of any categories
cataacivamaayt : appearing as Cataciva i.e the WORLD- as - a-WHOLE
taanum yaanum aakinRa tanmaiyanai : who is capable of both to be wholly Himself and at the same time wholly myself
nanmaiyoodu poRpudaiya beesak kadavoom: we are obliged to praise such a BEING with understanding
peeyar peecuvana peecuthumee : as such will we ever speak like the mad crowd the ordinary speech (that would please the kings)
pizaiyaR Roomee: we are NOT wrong in denying this

Let us take a deep breath and try to understand the tremendous implications of these words of Appar whereby he UPROOTS the whole foundation of Sangam culture of the Tamils as well as the political culture of mass media of today, the media of mundane speech , the speech of the mad crowd , the Peeyar, according to Appar. For such speech at the bottommost level are egological and full of greed for wealth and power. One praises the King or the political leaders for some kind of FAVOUR , to get as rewards wealth and so forth. We also scold him when we fail in it somehow. The whole lot of PuRam literature of the Sangam period was as such, mostly eulogies and which earned lands and gold for the poets. The poems of protest were also poems of disgust at being NOT rewarded. Even the Akam literature was collected and arranged only on the command of the Kings. Here we have all this literature being thrown out as the speech of mad crowd, speech which have such mean intentions as the primordial impulses.
This is applicable even today to the mass media which thrives with various hidden agendas - racial hatred, intentions to colonise , ideological propaganda, religious hegemony and what not. Even the academic "research" is NOT free from such prejudices. The true OBJECTIVITY that one would expect is hardly met with.
Appar throws away the whole range of such speech and calls for the MEATAPHYSICAL language, the language that talks of BEING, BEING as understood as above , uncanny and immensely mysterious, BEYOND the reach of understanding in terms of any mental categories but within the reach of those with genuine LOVE and so forth.
Here comes the CLUE for this mental revolution and uprooting the whole of Sangam culture and the foundation of the political culture everywhere. For all these cultures in being predominantly egological WILL NOT PROMOTE the LOVE that cares for ALL despite any social restrictions . The LOVE that humanises an individual in spiritualising him makes him TRANSEND all BOUNDARIES, national ethnic linguistic and what not. It is life moving in SPIRITUAL FREEDOM, a freedom in which one exercises LOVE without considering any of the identities that found group dynamics. One helps NOT because he is a member of the family , the clan, the nation , the cult group, the religious group and so forth. All these are the MAD CROWD for Appar and he says that speech of such people is NOT for him and that he KNOWS that in rejecting it as such he is NOT doing anything wrong.
Here Appar touches the real roots of communism or socialism but with a metaphysics with a deeper reach than Karl Marx or any other political philosophers of the world.

Appar on Human Autonomy-8

Appar as the most authentic metaphysician was a great rebel who braved even defying the local king. He also justifies this defiance in terms metaphysical insights that are rare.
While Appar simple and unassuming, he was a great rebel. We have forgotten his utter bravery and immense autonomy he declared and sustained by putting him along with so many Nayanmars.
A mental slavery has come to rule the Saivite mind lacking all the courage such as that of Appar.

Appar 1-8
ஈசனை எவ்வுலகினுக்கும் இறைவன் தன்னை
இமையவர்தம் பெருமானை எரியாய் மிக்க
தேசனைச் செம்மேனி வெண்ணீற் றானைச்
சிலம்பரையன் பொற்பாவை நலஞ்செய் கின்ற
நேசனை நித்தலும் நினையப் பெற்றோம்
நின்றுண்பார் எம்மை நினையச் சொன்ன
வாசகம் எல்லாம் மறந்தோம் அன்றே
வந்தீர் ஆர் மன்னவன் ஆவான் தான் ஆரே

iicanai evvulakinukkum iRaivan tannai
imaiyavartam perumaanai eriyaay mikka
teecanai cemmeeni veNNiiR Raanaic
cilambaraiyan poRpaavai nalanj ceykinRa
neecanai nittalum ninaiyaip peRRoom
ninRuNbaar emmai ninaiyac conna
vaacakam ellaam maRantoom anRee
vantiir aar mannavan aavaan taan aaree

எல்லா அதிகாரத்தையும் தன்னொடு வைத்துகொண்டிருக்கும் ஈசனை, அதனால் இயல்பாகவே எல்லா உலகினுக்கும் தலைவனாகிய இறைவனை, தேவாதி தேவர்களுக்கெல்லாம் தலைவனாக விளங்கும் பெருமானை; தீக்கைகள் செய்வித்து சிவஞானம் கொளுந்துவிட்டு எரியத்தரும் நெருப்பானை அதனின் சிவப்பிரகாச வத்துவாக திகழ்கின்றவனை, சுத்தத்தையே கொண்டு வரும் கருத்தின் திருவெண்ணீற்றானை, இப்படி தீக்கை செய்யவல்லானாகிலும் தணிக்கைசெய்யும் வல்லவனாக சிலம்பரையன் திருமகளாகிய பார்வதிதேவியை மணஞ்செய்து உலகிற்கு நலஞ்செய்யும் அன்பனை நாங்கள் மறவாதே நித்தலும் நினைந்து வாழ்கின்றோம். ஆதலின் ஓர் அரசனின் ஆதரவில் நின்றுண்பார் என்னையும் அவ்வாறே வாழும்படி செய்ய அவர்கள் வற்புறுத்தி போதித்த வாசகங்கள் அனைத்தும் பொய்யாய் வீழ்ந்தொழிய அவற்றை எல்லாம் மறந்தோம். இப்படியிருக்க எனைக் காண வந்துள்ளோர்களே, நீர் யாவிர்? மன்னவன் என்பான் தான் யார்?

We are forever living in the thoughts of BEING who is the LEADER and the LORD of all the worlds, the highest among all the celestial beings, who appears as the brilliant flame in order to singe to ashes all the dirt in the bosom of the anmas , who appears wearing the ashes all over the body to indicate that He is the source of all PURITIES and who conjoins with un-diminishing LOVE for the FEMALE, Parvathi, the daughter of the King of the Hills to produce the world and everything in it. And as such you who live at the mercy of the Local King : Listen! I have forgotten all the indoctrinations forced upon me. And who are you really? And who is really the King?
iicanai evvulakinukkum iRaivan tannai: BEING, the Most Powerful and who is the Lord of all the worlds
imaiyavartam perumaanai: the Highest among all the celestial beings
eriyaay mikkaeecanai : the Fire who shines resplendently
cemmeeni veNNiiR Raanaic: who wears the ashes all over the whole the red body
cilambaraiyan poRpaavai nalanj ceykinRa neecanai : the ONE who conjoined with undiminishing LOVE the FEMALE, the daughter of the King of Hills
nittalum ninaiyaip peRRoom : we are given over to think of HIM always
ninRuNbaar emmai ninaiyac conna vaacakam ellaam maRantoom anRee : we have forgotten all the indoctrinations that people who lived at the mercy of the King forced upon me to remember
vantiir aar : Who are you really?
mannavan aavaan taan aaree: and who really deserves to be the king?

Appar outlines here another politically explosive issue which have been forgotten for so long and which needs to be recaptured . For he raises the fundamental political question of who is really the King along with the metaphysical question of what is really the essence of human beings.
All human beings OUGHT to be the subject of only BEING, that is the human essence but which is lost sight of because of the metaphysical ignorance that prevails naturally. The political system capitalises on this IGNORANCE and props up a miserable individual as the King and sometimes even the God through a system of propaganda and indocrinations. The ordinary literature sustains this ideology and surreptiously conditions the mind to perpetuate this slavery. Thus ordinary people- the NinRu Unpaar-- those who gain their subsistence by subscribing to this ideology and perpetuate it without knowing that that is NOT their essence.
The real Lord is BEING, HE who brings into PRESENCE the world and everythiing in it, by conjoining the FEMALE and sustains it by remaining the LORD of all the worlds including the celestial beings. HE is the most powerful in addition to being the most PURE and BENIGN
For those who have been uplifted into these metaphysical realms their King is this BEING and NOT the miserable individuals who proclaim themselves as the King in imitation of BEING and sustain it through propagandist literature that seeks to INDOCTRINATE the individuals at the pain of various kinds of THREATS.
Appar remains adamant and boldly and clearly declares, perhaps for the first time in Indian History that he has forgotten all these "ninaiyac conna vaacakam", words forced into his head and made to remember. But all these are NO MORE, thay have fallen and disappeared just like darkness on the rise of daylight. The daylight here is the metaphysical illumination, the Civanjaanam, the TRUTH which also discloses the essence of BEING.
For individuals who live forever in the thoughts of BEING and hence TRUTH, the propagandist ideas will NOT matter at all and cease to determine their way of Being in the world. They LIVE but NOT subject to the dictates and commands of the political powers and the literature and media that sustain it.

Appar on Human Autonomy-9

The technical term Paasam ARuttal, severing the various bondages to earthly existence becomes the substance of metapolitics, a politics where one is subject only to BEING and no one else.
The ordinary politics of mundane existence does not promote the severance of all these worldly desires and hence bind an individual further into a life of existential repetition, of further elicitations of Karma.
To opt for a life of metapolitics is to opt for absolute freedom, the attainment of Moksa

Appar 1-9

சடையுடையான் சங்கக் குழையோர் காதன்
சாம்பலும் பாம்பும் அணிந்த மேனி
விடையுடையான் வேங்கை அதள் மேலாடை
வெள்ளிபோற் புள்ளியுழை மான்தோல் சார்ந்த
உடையுடையான் நம்மை உடையான் கண்டீர்
உம்மோடு மற்றும் உளராய் நின்ற
படையுடையான் பணிகேட்கும் பணியோம் அல்லோம்
பாசம் அற வீசும் படியோம் நாமே

cadaiyudaiyaan cangkak kuzaiyoor kaatan
caambalum paambum aNinta meeni
vidaiudaiyaan veengkai ataL meelaadai
veLLippoR puLLiyuzai maantool caarnta
udaiyudaiyaan nammai udaiyaan kaNdiir
ummodu maRRum uLaraay ninRa
padaiyudaiyaan paNikeedkum paNiyoom alloom
paacam aRa viicum padiyoom naamee

எம்மை ஆட்கொண்டு எம்மை உடையானாக எங்களை நலமே செலுத்துபவனாக இருப்பது, அகிலமெங்கும் தனது பஞ்சகிருத்தியங்களால் நிறைந்திருக்கும் சடையுடையான், அனைத்தையும் அழித்து ஆக்குந் திறத்து ஆண்பெண்ணாகிய வடிவின் சங்கக் குழையோர் காதன், மற்றும் அயராது உழைப்பதிற்கு வேண்டிய வீரியத்தை நல்கும் திறத்து விடையுடையான், தீக்கையின் சாம்பலையும் தணிக்கையும் பாம்பினையும் உடையவன் எனவும், சினந்து உருத்திரத் தாண்டவம் ஆடவல்லானாக விளங்கும் வேங்கை தோலை அரைக்கிசைத்தவன் என்பதொடு கருணையின் மென்மையின் மான்தோலையும் உடையாக கொண்டவன் என்பதை காணுங்கள்! இப்படி இருக்க , அவனது அருளால் பிணித்திருக்கும் பாசங்களை அற வீசும் செயல்களில் ஈடுபடுவோமேத் தவிர, உம்மையும் மற்றும் இன்னும் பலரையும் தமக்கு அடிபணிந்து செயலாற்றும் வகையில் தனது படையாகக் கொண்டு பாசத்தளைகளில் தொடர்ந்து எங்களை வீழ்த்தும் பணிகளையே செய்யுமாறு இந்த அரசன் வேண்ட, அத்தகையப் பணிகளை யாம் யாண்டும் செய்வோம் அல்லோம்.


We are ruled by BEING who has taken possession of us, the BEING who in addition to being absolutely TRANSCENDENT is also IMMANENT dancing with the long tuft spread out fully, BEING who destroys and regenerates and hence who appears as the MALE-FEMALE, BEING who provides the VIRILITY needed by all through assuming the archetypal form with the BULL, BEING who shows Himself as the one who burns to ashes every dirt and at the same time who provides the necessary psychic energy through the snake HE wears , BEING who gets angry and violently destroys the evil as the archetype of one who wears the tiger-skin and at same time gentle and benign as shown by the attire of the deer -skin with silver spots all over. You must see this and note that we are obliged only to the actions of BEING that would secure LIBERATION from the snares that condition the earthly life and as such we certainly will not do the political actions of the local king to whose armies you belong!

cadaiyudaiyaan : BEING with the hair spread out fully
cangkak kuzaiyoor kaatan: BEING who appears as MALE-FEMALE with conch shells worn in one of the ears
caambalum paambum aNinta meeni: who smears Himself with the ashes but also wears the snake as neck garland
vidaiudaiyaan : BEING with the BULL of virility
veengkai ataL meelaadai veLLippoR puLLiyuzai maantool caarnta udaiyudaiyaan : BEING who has as HIS attire the skin of the fiery tiger as well as that of the gentle deer with silver spots
nammai udaiyaan kaNdiir: see that we are possessed by such a BEING
ummodu maRRum uLaraay ninRa padaiyudaiyaan : the king who has you and others as his army
paNikeedkum paNiyoom alloom: we are NOT obliged to do the political actions that are required of us
paacam aRa viicum padiyoom naamee: we are only to do the actions that would LIBERATE us from the snares of mundane existence

Appar continues his tirade against the local political system and now directed at the POLITICAL MACHINERY that sustains an individual as the King. A king can continue to be a King only in a political system that is sustained by an army of different types of individuals. Thus the POWER of the King comes to be only because of the COMPLIANCE of the people who opt to become his servants doing as bidden by him and who bids in such a way that the political system continues to survive and he as the king. But this kind of life is a life in worldly snares, a life that perpetuates the metaphysical ignorance in which people are already. Thus it does NOT constitute a life where actions that LIBERATE the soul can be effected. Such actions will certainly be DISALLOWED and worse still even discouraged severely.
The citizenship to metaphysical world of BEING provides for him an alternative, that unlike the socio-political LIBERATES the individuals and where only actions that are liberating will be strongly favoured and fostered. This is another system that is also available in existence-- that of metapolitical system with all kinds of armies of BEING.

First BEING is there whereby as the Pancakritiyan , HE who conceals an reveals and in revealing produces, sustains and destroys. He is also the MALE-FEMALE and hence the POWER underlying the sexual dynamics and hence HE who controls the sexual libido and hence the happiness in general. In this HE also burns to ashes the impurities and replenishes the anmas with the much needed psychic energy that reactivates sexuality and infuses new dynamics. HE is also the BULL of VIRILITY that provides a healthy and youthful body and hence the GROUND of good health. And also HE is the supremely ETHICAL who bounces upon the immoral like a tiger but would and at the same time GRACE those who repent and reform with kindness and gentility like the sanguine deer These are the TANTRAS, the strategies in the WAR GAME that HE conducts throughout and to which all of us are subject to whether we like it or not.
The ordinary political processes and the machinery that maintains it, sustains only the life of ensnarement and does NOT have the powers such as those of BEING to work towards liberation. BEING has control over the FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES of life where else the king only over a small fragment of it and that too with a very fragile hold on it -- it lasts only as long as the people consent to be his army.
Weighing both, APPAR opts for the Universe of BEING-as-Civa as that which is beneficial to him as it is to all.

Appar on Human Autonomy-10(final)

Here in this final verse of this magnificent Patikam, the enormous importance of aesthetics, the great relevance of the fine arts for reaching BEING and in that also developing in personalty is described in some details.
As part of this aesthetics so important for the culturing of the feelings and emotions, we have Hymnology so central in Agamism, the temple-centred Hinduism.
Appar gives a beautiful explanation of it all, elucidated below in the commentary.

Appar 1-10

நாவார நம்பனையே பாடப் பெற்றோம்
நாணற்றார் நள்ளாமே விள்ளப் பெற்றோம்
ஆவாஎன்று எமை ஆள்வான் அமரர் நாதன்
அயனொடுமாற் கறிவரிய அனலாய் நீண்ட
தேவாதி தேவன் சிவனென் சிந்தை
சேர்ந்திருந்தான் தென்திசைக் கோன் தானே வந்து
கோவாடிக் குற்றேவல் செய்கென் றாலும்
குணமாகக் கொள்ளோம் எண்குணத்துளோமே

naavaara nambanaiyee paadap peRRoom
naanaRRaar naLLaame viLLappeRRoom
aavaa enRu emai aaLvaan amarar naatan
ayanoodumaaR kaRivariya analaay niiNda
teevaati teevan civanen cintai
ceerntiruntaan tenticaikkoon taanee vantu
koovaadik kuRReeval ceyken Raalum
kuNamaakak koLLoom eNkuNattuLLoomee

தெய்வீகப் பாடல்களையே இறைவனடி அடைய பொருந்தி வரும் உத்தியாகக் கொண்டு நாவார பாடிப்பாடி மகிழும் பேறினைப் பெற்றுள்ளோம்; இழிவுகளை நாணாது ஓம்புவாரை விரும்பாது ஒதுங்கி நிற்கும் திறத்தை பெற்றுள்ளோம்; இதனால் வருக வருக என்று என்றுமே திறந்த மனத்தோடு வரவேற்கும் சிறப்பின் சிவபெருமான்; அயனும் திருமாலும் அவனை அறிந்து தேறாவகை ஆதியும் அந்தமுமில்லா அருட்பெருஞ்சோதியாயும் தனைக் காட்டியருளிய சிவபெருமான்; இதனால் அமரர் தன் தலைவனாக தேவாதி தேவனாய்த் திகழும் சிவபெருமானே எமை ஆள, யாமாகி சேர்ந்திருக்க எல்லா உயர் நல குணங்களில் சிறந்து விளங்கும் திவ்விய குணத்தினராக நாம் இருக்கும் பொழுது, அந்த கூற்றுவனே அரச கோலங்கொண்டு எனைக் குற்றேவல் செய்கவென வற்புறுத்தினாலும், நின்று மணக்கும் திவ்விய குணங்கள் கெடும் வகையில் அவற்றை செய்வோம் அல்லோம்.


We are given over to attaining BEING through singing hymns so pleasing to the soul We are also blessed with no desires for the company of those people not ashamed of evil and unbecoming qualities. And on top of that we remain most welcome to the abode of BEING, HE who defeated Ayan, the God of scriptures and Thirumaal, the God of the manifest universe by disclosing Himself as the FLAME with upper and lower limits beyond their reach, and WHO because of this remains the God of the gods, becomes our LORD who rules us by Being us and through which allows us the enjoyment of all noble qualities in life. As against this we are NOT inclined to obey and be submissive to the King who may be the God of death himself threatening with dealth penalties when meeting with disobedience from us.
naavaara nambanaiyee paadap peRRoom: we are given over to singing the hymns so pleasing to the soul
naanaRRaar naLLaame viLLappeRRoom: we are blessed with not wishing the company of those individuals who are not ashamed of the evil and unbecoming qualities
aavaa enRu emai aaLvaan amarar naatan: BEING the lord of the celestial beings rules us always inviting to HIS world

ayanodumaaR kaRivariya analaay niiNda teevaati teevan civan : the God of the gods who disclosed Himself as the Flame the upper and lower limits of which were beyond the reach of Ayan, the God of the scriptures and Thirumaal, the God of the manifest world
en cintai ceerntiruntaan: BEING remains in my soul as that HE Himself
tenticaikkoon taanee vantu koovaadik kuRReeval ceyken Raalum : even if the God of death in the guise of this King demands submission and obedience
kuNamaakak koLLoom eNkuNattuLLoomee : we will take them as unbecoming of us as we are with all the noble qualities of BEING

Appar begins here another line of attack against political submission that can be coercive and even may mete out death penalties for the defiant individuals as it happened really to Appar. We have from his own words that he was pushed into the sea with a rock tied to his back so that he would drown and die. But he escaped miraculously by chanting the mantra NAMASIVAYA and survived by reaching the shores of Punaluur about which he has also sung many hymns
This verse is important PSYCHOLOGICALLY as it is also socio-politically for it touches upon the FEELINGS that would condition the PERSONALITY structure of a person. Appar claims that the life of submission and obedience to the local king and in modern times to the political leadership will NOT FOSTER the growth of the most excellent and NOBLE qualities and hence something NOT to be desired by those who cherish a way of life in which one always wants the noblest sentiments guiding the socio-political existence.
In this verse also emerge the essence of AGAMISM, why Hymnology is raised to the level of being the most effective TECHNOLOGY for Being with BEING and allowing HIM to rule the person. For the Divine ILLUMINATION is BEYOND the reach of the WORDS and hence beyond literature of any kind including the scriptures. Scriptural exegetics may clear away some confusions and illuminate certain matters but ABSLOUTE ILLUMINATION can be enjoyed only if we TRANSCEND all the scriptures for such an illumination being Non-thetic is BEYOND LANGUAGE even of the scripture type. And it is also BEYOND the Hermeneutic Understanding which confines understanding to the phenomenal, the MANIFEST , here indicated by the notion of being beyond Thirumaal, the Lord of Manifest Universe. BEING is a FLAME the upper and lower limits of which remain UNFATHOMABLE by such efforts and hence BEING supremely MYSTERIOUS and always the victorious because as such.

How are we to ATTAIN a nearness, a proximity with such a BEING? The singing of HYMNS is the way for the hymns over and above all the other efforts MELTS the heart and TOUCHING the soul LIFTS IT UP to a higher existential plain and through that write in fundamental changes in personality. Being transposed to a higher level of existence is simultaneous with personality development , the seeking of existence only with noble sentiments including the socio-political existence. In this the HIGHEST possibility is made available when BEING HIMSELF is allowed to RULE the individual and at which point emerges the "eNkuNam" the term that simply means all the noble qualities that sustains one in divinely existence. The word "eN" is variant of "eeN" meaning high, noble, divine, the most excellent etc.
As against this complying to the demands of the socio-political dictates would constitute a FALL for in this life prevails corruption envy stealth jealousy the intention to kill and destroy, the inclination to bring misery to others and what not. Such people are NaaN aRRoor , individuals not ashamed of the bestiality of their personality. So such a socio-political life is NOT for me, says Appar, even if it means death penalties from the ruling king.



"" இருந்து மீள்விக்கப்பட்டது
இப்பக்கம் கடைசியாக 26 ஜனவரி 2013, 06:37 மணிக்குத் திருத்தப்பட்டது. இப்பக்கம் 1,302 முறைகள் அணுகப்பட்டது.