Kumari KaNdam by P.Prabhakaran- A review

மரபு விக்கி இருந்து

தாவிச் செல்ல: வழிசெலுத்தல், தேடுக

 Kumari Kandam by P. Prabhakaran: A Review

By Dr K. Loganathan, Malaysia 5-4-12

A few days ago I received a book Kumari KaNdam written by P. Prabharan with a personal request that I write a review of it so that another edition more comprehensive than the present can be written and published. Fascinated I spend a few days reading the book amidst my various other commitments.

Overall let me say this: despite the nonacademic character of the book written more for the general public than for the erudite scholars, the book is quite revolutionary where a new picture of not only the origin of Tamils, the Dravidians but also the whole lot of Indians is being articulated with a reasonable amount of the necessary evidences. For many centuries we have been fooled by the European Indologists into thinking that it was Vedic Aryans who founded the Indian culture, these Sk speaking Aryans are ultimately related to the Europeans etc and that the Dravidians contributed virtually nothing to enrich Indian culture. Though this view changed somewhat after the discovery of Indus Valley Civilization, there is still reluctance to accept it as a civilization founded by the Dravidians, This uncertainty follows because of the undeciphered nature of the Indus script.

Now against this view , there is another articulated by many in the forums of Akandabaratam, Meykandar and Tolkaappiyam and so forth where it is proposed that the Dravidian folks hailed from Sumeria and that while the South Dravidians arrived through the sea route the North Dravidians arrived in the Punjab area through the land route and became the Vedic Aryans and so forth.

This short book articulates this view for the first time where the author boldly rejects all other views as historically unjustifiable. Thus we have here a NEW understanding of the History of Ancient India being proposed and which does full justice to the Dravidian folks who have remained marginalized by the Europeans who hijacked the Vedas and Sk language into the European fold.

I provide a review of this book in some details so that the author can come up with another edition so that it is not only more substantial but also quite appealling to both the general public as well the critical scholars.

The Title and Contents:

This a small book of only 154 pages written in popular journalistic style quite suitable for the general public. It has the main title of Kumari KaNdam with a subtitle The Origin and Spread of the Tamils It is divided into 27 brief chapters some just a page and some 5 or 6 pages so that the reading is not very demanding.

The first 5 chapters deal with the traditional accounts of the Kumari Kandam linking it with Lemuria Gondwana Land and so forth and which are rejected and shown that the classical account of the Three Academies the first in the sunken Kumari identified as Lemuria and so forth is untenable and that the account really described a FOREIGN origin of the CaGkam Tamils and that they are in fact emigrants who colonized S,India and that they originated from Sumeria. It is this view that has been irksome to the Tamil scholars who loath to see them as colonizers of a kind.

The chapters beginning with the sixth to the sixteenth deal with the Sumerian origins of the CaGkam Tamils in greater details by looking at the various cultural and other similarities. The chapters from the 17th to 24th deal with the concept of CaGkam and how the same institution with the same name is also found quite widely in Sumerian literature and how the Sumerians in fact colonized both North and South India both through the sea route and land route.

The final two chapters deal with the possible spread and later emigration of Dravidian folks from Crete and Indus to the whole of India

I shall deal with these themes one by one and where I hope to highlight the good points as well as point out the necessary revisions to make the whole book not only more readable but somewhat more academic so that even the critical scholars will appreciate this account of ancient Indian History something that does full justice to the Dravidian folks.


To continue

Kumari Kandam by P. Prabhakaran: A Review-2

The book proper (in Tamil) begins with the question: What landmass could have been the Kumari mentioned in the ancient Tamil texts and where the first SaGkam was located?

Here the classical Tamil scholars for more than hundred years have maintained that kumari is in fact a large landmass at the southern end of Tamil Nad but thousands years ago sunken by a massive flood deluge Tsunami or something like that. They supported this view by citing various geological studies related continental shifts that occurred millenniums ago. They affirmed that this fabulous Kumari is in fact the Gondwana land, the Lemuria and so forth.

Some also maintained that the Tamils who founded the SaGkam culture are in fact native to the Indian subcontinent, an autochthonous group of people who developed the SaGkam culture in the Indian soil itself.

Now without going into the details it is clear that these views that presuppose geological events millenniums ago cannot be the Kumari of the First SaGkam, a literary academy where scholars assembled and sanctioned the literary productions as meritorious and so forth.

While Prabhakaran rejects such fabulous views and mentions that a careful study of the traditional accounts of the Academies in the classical texts suggests that Kumari was not a landmass that was submerged by a deluge but rather a landmass or in fact a nation ABANDONED for some political reasons where the ancient Tamils were forced to emigrate and move out from the native place and colonize another area, here the extreme part of South Indian.

He rightfully points out that SaGkam Tamils could not have developed the SaGkam culture so sophisticated in the Indian soil itself where there are no traces of the earlier and primitive stages of development. The oldest SaGkam text is Tokaappiyam, a massive treatise in Linguistics of a very sophisticated kind where the earlier phases of its development are not available at all, even as parts of it.

Here he should mention that the earliest records of literary activities goes back at most to 800 BC or so and where only some brief inscriptions in Brahmi script have been discovered. This indicates that while there may have been many natives quite indigenous there but the culturally sophisticated SaGkam Tamils could not have arrived there before about 1000 BC or so. When they came they must have brought along with them a very matured literary culture out of which came the CaGkam classics and so forth.

Here if they came from Sumeria, there is the problem of explaining how the script is NOT the cuneiform script but rather Brahmi.

Here I feel that the actual references to Kumari in PuraNaanRru Kalittokai Silappatikaram IRaiyanar Akapporul and so forth could have been given in full and from them it is drawn out that the CaGkam Tamils were in fact immigrants and that Kumari was not swallowed by a deluge but rather a nation that was abandoned for some reason or other.

Now I feel also it should be pointed that Kumari of these accounts being the location of the First CaGkam cannot be a landmass before 5000 BC or so as the CaGkam was a literary academy and writing came to be perfected only around 5000 BC or so. And since it was the Sumerians who perfected the cuneiform script and developed a very matured literary civilization the likelihood is that the CaGkam Tamils are descendents of these Sumerians who colonized TN and continued their literary culture in this new soil.

For these reasons the various accounts of Tamil scholars like PavaNar and Appadurai and so forth who maintained that Kumari is in fact a southern sunken landmass can also be rejected. Prabhakaran rightly mentions that there are no marine archeological evidences for such a claim.


To continue

Kumari Kandam by P. Prabhakaran: A Review-3

We now come to chapters 6 to 8 where the main theme of the Sumerian origins of the CaGkam Tamils is discussed. Having shown that Kumar is not a large landmass submerged by floods or deluge, he suggests that it was a landmass where the ancient Tamils lived and developed their culture. Kumari was a nation that was abandoned for a some reasons or other and they were forced to migrate and finally colonize the present day S. India and continue their culture and which constitutes the CaGkam culture of the Third Academy.

Now what can be the place of origins where the ancient Tamils developed their culture to a magnificent level prior to coming down to S. India?

Three areas are suggested: Sumerian Crete and Indus Valley Civilization. First he considers Sumeria as the most likely place of origin as it was the first civilization that developed agriculture ushering in the birth of settled life leading to the formation of permanent settlements, the Ur or Purams and led to the formation of city states. The Sumerian culture was a culture of city staes and which later led to the formation of empires that brought together many cities under the rule of a single person.

He also goes on to discuss in details how the Sumerians also developed the cuneiform script to write on clay tablets, invent burnt bricks to build massive hill-like temples called Ziggurats and so forth. He also discusses many cultural parallels between the Sumerian and Tamils by pointing out themes in Gilgamesh epic which are also reflected in Indian puranas such as Macca PuraNam etc. I shall comment oh these later in a separate post.

While all these are important it is unfortunate that he fails mention here the fact that the Sumerians called their country Kumari or Kaur and which clinches the fact that Sumerians are in fact the Kumari Tamils of the classical literature who also had various kinds of CaGkams (Su, sag-gam) about which I will also comment later in a separate post

Here I repost the passage from Udug Hul as something he can quote in full in his revision and which will affirm the Sumerian origins of the CaGkam Tamils

Ku'ar , Kumari.
This interpretation of 'sag-gam' is further reinforced by the mention of "Kumari" ( Ku'ar) which lends support to the historical notion that the First CaGkam was established in Kumari.
Geller gives evidences to read the sign [A-HA] as " Kumari" ( Ku'ar) on page 13 of the book mentioned above. I give below the whole of the relevant passage .
" The above hypothesis contradicts a theory by van Dijk, that since Ku'ar was a city known as "non-Sumerian speaking" as well as the city of Asalluhi, "Grossexorcist von Eridu', it is tempting to identify Ku'ar as the home of the non-canonical incantation in Subarian-Elamite languages. Van Dijk's arguments, however, are partially based upon a miscopied sign in CT 16 6:239-240 ( collated) which reads :
eridu (ki) ku'ar ( A.HA)(ki)-se mu-un-na-ri he-me-e-n
Ak. sa ina eri-du u ku-ma-ri re-hu-u ana-ku
The reading ku-ma-ri ( Kuwari? Ku'ar) is supported by ku-mar ( CT 51 105:21- 22).... "
It is interesting here that in Tamil, Kumari is also called Kauri, a parallel in meaning and morphology that is quite striking and thus pointing out also a historical continuity despite a shift in the geographical location
Now another related question is that of the origins of these Sumerians themselves and which is not discussed in sufficient details.
Here the claims of Dr Winters where he claims sub Saharan origins must be mentioned as a distinct possibility and quite consistent with the East African origins of the Dravidian folks in general a matter that goes back 70k years at least.
However I feel that the original Kumari or the landmass where the Sumerians developed their agricultural innovations and hence the rudiments of civilization as such was probably the sunken Oasis in the Persian gulf as noted by Jeffry Rose as below:
Note: This Kumari in Iraq, which I will name Kumari II, is a name of recall of Kumari I, the original kumari , perhaps the Oasis of Lost Civilization of Jeffrey Rose as mentioned in:
There was a virtual explosion of settlement around the shoreline of the Gulf
in the Middle Holocene, coinciding with the final phase of marine incursion
into the basin. More than just the sheer number of sites that were
established within a single millennium (), the characteristics of these
sites have profound implications for social evolution in the Gulf Oasis. By
the time that indigenous groups became archaeologically visible during the
‘Ubaid 3 phase around 7500 cal BP, these communities had already undergone
complete Neolithic demographic transition and were, in fact, on the cusp of
the Urban Revolution. This is exemplified in the suite of features found at
‘Ubaid-related sites, including permanent stone structures, pottery, date
palm cultivation, animal husbandry, fishing, extensive trade networks, and
advanced boat-building.
Three millennia after the proposed (re)settlement of indigenous ‘Ubaid 3
groups along the northern shoreline of the Gulf, the region became known as
Sumeria and was populated by the world’s earliest literate civilization.
Albeit epiphenomenal, it is interesting to note that the oldest known
version of the ubiquitous Near Eastern flood myth, the “Eridu
(Jacobsen 1981), was written by the inhabitants of this region. The link
between flood mythology and marine incursion into the Arabo-Persian Gulf
basin has already been thoroughly explored by a number of authors (see Cooke
1987; Hamblin 1987; Kennett and Kennett 2006; Lambeck 1996; Sanford 2006;
Teller et al. 2000) and does not require any further elucidation.
The language of the Ubaid communities is clearly Archaic Tamil as I have already shown. Suruppaks NeRi(nari) is a text recovered from that site
These notes are available at :
Associated with this discovery is also that of ‘sag-gam’ as an Academy of a kind and about which we shall discuss in a separate note.
The above description of the Oasis sunken in the Persian Gulf may also account for the Flood Myth also available quite extensively in the Sumerian literature. The original Kumari that I call Kumari1 may in fact be the Kumari that was sunken by floods and which forced the Sumerians migrate to the nearby ancient Iraq and continue their culture there sharing the land with the native Akkadians and so forth.
To continue
Kumari Kandam by P. Prabhakaran: A Review-4

Next we take up the issue of Tamil SaGkam that is intimately related to the historical account of Kumari where it is said to be the location of the first Tamil SaGkam, the Academy. Prabhakaran deals with this issue in the chapters 19 and 20 where he also quotes my studies but only partially,

Now first we notice that he mentions the occurrence of the word SaGkam (Su sag-gam) in Sumerian literature in a tale about EnKi a text running to more than 400 lines, He mentions that there was a SaGkam for the astronomers or astrologers for them to sanction some new proposals related to calendar constructions and so forth,

He also mentions some of my studies where sag-gam as such is mentioned. In all these there are a number of inadequacies that can be addressed in the revised edition. I list them as follows:


There are NO original Sumerian texts given with translations and transcriptions into both English and Tamil such as the way I do. I quote here a sample of my studies which is only partially mentioned by Prabhakaran :

The Sumerian Sag-gam mah (Great CaGkam) in Kumari
Below some very historically interesting lines where both Kumari and CaGkam are mentioned as also mentioned in some ancient Tamil texts . Here I venture to give some of my own interpretations as well.
The Incantations are taken from the superb publication "Forerunners to Udug-Hul" by Markham J. Geller , and published by Franz Steiner Verlag Wiebaden GMBH, Stuttgart, 1985
The tablets used for reconstruction are said to belong to the Old Babylonian Period but the compositions themselves may actually belong to the period of the Third Ur Dynasty ( 2300 B.C. -- 2000 B.C)
215. ga-e gudu sag-gam-mah ju me-en ( I am the anointing (gudu)-priest , the knowledgeable sangamah)
216. ga-e lu asilal (ki) me-en ( I am the man of Asilal?)
217. ga-e ka-pirig [A-HA](ki) he-sikil-la he-ga-dadag-ga me-en ( I am the incantation priest of Ku'ar , who indeed cleansed , and also purified)
218. . gudu susbu (d)en-ki-ga me-en ( I am the anointing priest, the purification priest of Enki)
*Ta. Gaayee koodu caGkam maa: cuu maan ( I am a ritual dancer ( koodu) who knows the rules established by the Great caGkam)
ங்ஆயே கோடு சங்கம் மா சூ மான்
*Ta. Gaayee aacu-ilal maan ( I am the man from Asillal ( the place where there are no impurities)
ங்ஆயே ஆசு இலா மான்
*Ta. Gaayee kaapiri Kumari (Kauri) ey sukilla, eyka taGtaGku maan ( I am the incantation priest of Kumari (Kauri), attained purity and also attained living long)
ங்ஆயே காபிரி குமரி எய் சுகில்ல எய்க தங்குதங்கு மான்
*Ta. koodu coobu ENkiizkka maan ( I am the brilliant dancer of ENkiiz)\\
கோடு சோப ஏன்கீழ்க்க மான்
gudu Ta. koodu, kuudu , kudam? kuuttu
The Su. gudu which is given the meaning 'priest" may actually be a ritual dancer, and hence the Ta. koodu , meaning Ta. koodiyar, the dancer. From this might have also originated Ta. kuudal, the coming together , assembling as an congregation and which brings us to the Kuudal, an ancient and alternative name for Mathurai, the location of the Third CaGkam or Academy which is also a meaning of Kuudal. This may have evolved from this way : kuudu-il> kuudil> kuudal. There is also a word 'kudil" which is retained in Sk in the name Kaudil-ya, the Gotra of the famous author of Artta Sastra which is said to have been written in Tamil Nadu. This Kaudil-ya has also become KauNdiya, the gotra of ThirunjaanaSambantar and so forth.
The word 'kudam" meaning 'pot' is ruled out as it appears to be a description of a professional person here though elsewhere it does occur in this sense in some Sumerian texts.
sag-gam-mah : maa caGkam : the Great Assembly?
The identity of Su. mah with Ta/Sk maa, maha in both morphology and meaning is quite obvious. The word "sag-gam" cannot be 'priest" ( sangu?sanga) as 'gudu' that precedes it, already means that. Hence it should be linked with 'sa-ga =sag-a" , to conjoin, be together , be in love etc. as in the following line:
Exal of In-Anna
55. mi-be dam-a-ni-ta sa-ga na- an-da-ab-be (its woman no longer speaks of love with her husband)
*Ta. mibee tam anitta saG-a naa aanida abaiyee ( " )
The sag-a here can also be (sexually) uniting, the Ta. caGkamam. Many words such as 'caki' 'cakan' meaning loved ones may be related to this.
Thus it appears to be that 'sag-gam-mah" is the Great CaGkam , here however an Assembly of priests or ritual dancers in which many issues were discussed and perhaps also refined and standardized. The author of the incantation mentions that he KNOWS ( ju, Ta. cuu, cuuz) which also reinforces the notion that sag-gam was in fact an Academy of a kind. Perhaps the Buddhist ' caGkam" as in "CaGkam caraNam kaccaami" was an evolute of this kind of assembly and which in later times became an academic institution of scholars , the Pulavar.

I feel that such a discussion of the linguistic issues is quite important to convince the skeptics about the claim and which is quite sophisticated, something integral to Tamil culture long before the academies of the Greeks.


The second point is related to the absence of sufficient discussions on Sumerian being Archaic Tamil that I have dealt with quite extensively. In connection with this I have rejected the Constructive Linguistics of Protoforms and developed elements of Evolutionary Linguistics to substantiate my claim that Sumerian is Archaic Tamil. Here an important thing that Prabhakaran could have done is to provide a list of basic lexicon along with a sample of sentences that are clearly recognizable as Tamil but certainly an Archaic Form. The following sample is an illustration of this:
1. lugal-e mu-ni nig-du-se
The king's name, according to what is becoming

உளுகள்ளே மோஅன்னை நிக்துசேய்

2.u-su-du inim pa-e ag-de
In order to bring (it) into light , for distant days, by means of the word...

ஊ சூடு எனம் பார் ஏ ஆக்கிடே

3. Sul-gi lugal Uri-ma-ke
Sulgi's, he king of Ur

சூல்கி, உளுகள் ஊரிம்மக்கே

4. a-na za-mi-bi-im kalag-ga-na sir-bi-im
This is the song of his power, this is the hymn of his valour

ஆன்ன சாமீபியம் கல்ஆக்கன்ன சீர்பியம்

5. gal-an-zu nig sag-bi-se e-a-na mu-da-ri-bi-im
Of the wise, in all things foremost, this is the lasting record

கலஞ்-சு நிக சான்பிசே ஏயன்ன முதரீபியம்

6. sa-bal-bal-a egir-u-da inim su a-bal-e-de
In oder to pass down word to the generations of the future

சான் பால்பால எதிருட எனம் சொல் அபர் ஈதே

7. kala-ga dumu Nin-sun-ka-ra
For the valiant, the Son of Ninsun

காளைக(கால-க?) தமு நின்சங்கர

8. gestu egir-ra-bi igi-se mu-un-na-tum
He (the singer), the deep of wisdom brought for him to the fore

கெஸ்த்து எகிற்றபி இஇஙிசேய் முன்ன தோம்

9. a lu-sir-ra di-se mu-un-e
The art of the singer utters unto a declaration

ஆ உளுசீர இஇடிசே முன் ஏ

10. dim-ma nig sag-ga sa-ta DU-a ni-bi i-il-e
And ardently extols in whatever fine thoughts that surge from the heart

திம்ம நிக சாங்க சாய்த்த DU-அ நீபி ஈ இயலே
For linguistic and related discussions see:
The point is that along with the claims that the Southern part of Sumeria was called Kumari and that there was this SaGkam and so forth, it must be pointed out that the Sumerian language is RECOGNISABLE as Archaic Tamil and hence the Sumerians were Tamil speaking Dravidian folks.
Realted this is also some inaccuracies in rendering the Sumerian words into Tamil. Su An is best rendered as Ta, aaN meaning the Supreme Power, as is available in CaGkam literature PatiRRup Pattu as ‘aaN kadan” and so forth and which exists now as aaN-dakai etc meaning the Supreme God.
Similarly for En which is better rendered as Ta.eeN and from which we have VeeN as in VeeN maa Nalaayini and so forth. Finally it has became veeL as it exists now. The Sumerian En Merukar exists now as VeeL Murukar.
Another point related to these issues is that Sumerians had not only the SaGkam but also various other social institutions such as Saba(Sk sabha) Galga (Ta, kazakam) Su ab-be (Ta. Vai) and so forth. Such associations unions and so forth indicate that Sumerians were essentially democratic where there was this habit of collective discussions and debates before a social action was taken.
To continue
Kumari Kandam by P. Prabhakaran: A Review-5

Cultural Continuities

We have seen that there are linguistic similarities, that in fact Sumerian is Archaic Tamil a matter that Prabhakaran can improve upon in his next edition. Now I shall come to the theme of cultural continuities between Sumerian and Dravidian that he deals with mainly in chapters 7 and 13.

In Chapter 7 he gives an interesting and quite complete summary of the massive Gilgamesh Epic and brings out many themes there are reflected in many puraNas n India, in Macca PuraNa Bagavath PuraNa and so forth. While these are fascinating and which are matters that need to be studied more extensively, but he fails to point out how the essence of the Gilgamesh Epic constitutes the very foundation of the philosophic culture of not only the Dravidians but the whole of India.

The main theme of the epic is man attaining Moksa like the Flood Hero Jiusudra and enjoy being among the gods, beyond the cycle of births and deaths. But Gilgamesh fails in this but manages only longevity through eating some herbs from the depth of a sea and enjoy immortality through an extraordinary feat that makes his name go into History,

Now the whole of Indian philosophic tradition differs from that of the West in being Moksa-centered where even the word Moksa may be derived from the Su. mus meaning to depart , go away etc. In Suruppak’s NeRi(Su nari) this theme is described as crossing a mighty and turbulent river and which immediately reminds us of TirukkuRal:

piRavip peryGkadal niintuvar niitar
iRaivan adi seeraataat:

Only he who reaches the Feet Of BEING will ever cross the vast ocean of births(and deaths)

Now Gilgamesh enjoying longevity through eating some herbs from the sea may be the theme of Indian medical systems the Siddha and Ayur Veda. This is also the theme central to Yoga which is also present in Sumerian literature.

Jainism in Gilgamesh

Now another shortcoming in Prabhakaran’s treatment is that there are elements in the Epic that are distinctively early Jainism, a matter that is available in the Table 12 of the epic. I have pointed out this in the following study:


The Gods and Temples

He deals with this theme in the 13th chapter and I must say immediately that it is woefully inadequate. I have written quite extensively and have pointed out that almost all major Hindu gods are available in Sumerian literature where In-Anna has become Durga KoRRavai Uma Parvati and so forth, The god Sipa(siva) as also Enlil also called Se-ir-ma-al who is obviously the Dravidian Tirumaal(VishNu). It is possible that En Merukar is the later day VeeL Murukar but earlier known as Assalugi and so forth.

Of outstanding importance in connection with this is the Exaltations of In-Anna( that I call Sirbiyam) and Kes Temple Hymn by En Hudu Anna.

The Sirbiyam incorporates Icon Thinking which is the foundation of Bakti culture so central in Agamic Hinduism which centers on Image Worship.

The Kes Temple Hymn as well as the 40 odd Sumerian temple Hymns show how even in those distant days the temple-centered Agamism was already well developed. It is this Agamism which is continued to this day not only among the Dravidians but Indians as a whole where temples continue to be erected wherever Hinduism takes roots.

Some of my studies on this theme are available in the following Google Site:


Vedism and Sumerian Solar Cosmology

This theme has been studied quite extensively by Alexandar Jacob who has written two different books on it. I have also pointed out how the Fire Worship of Rig Veda is a continuation of the Fire Worship in Sumeria but where it was only a part of temple rituals as it is even to-day. I have even pointed out how the word Yajna may be derived from the Sumerian ejen meaning fire, fire festival and so forth.

These studies are available at the following site:


Prabhakaran reiterates the possible arrival of Sumerians through the land route and settling in the Punjab area and who sang the Vedas that constitute now a valuable corpus of literature of ancient India. Though they may not be the most ancient Literature in the world where that place is now taken over by the Sumerian, but nevertheless quite fascinating as it records many interesting developments of the initial Solar Cosmology of the Sumerians. On their way through Persia they might even have contributed to the birth of Zoroastrianism and other similar cults. All these along with Zend Avesta in relation to Sumerian literature are matters for future scholarship.

Sumerian Origin of Dravidian Philosophies.

Now I must mention here that I have embarked upon a massive and immensely challenging job of writing the History of Dravidian Philosophy(in Tamil) where I locate the beginnings in Sumerian literature. The work is in progress and I have already written the fifth chapter where I bring together the literary corpus relating the Sumerian and Dravidian which constitutes the contents of chapter Five(in Tamil) available at the site:


Let me conclude this brief note by saying that Prabhakaran has begun a kind of comparative study of ancient Indian and Tamil literature in relation to Sumerian that is sure to unfold many new insights into the origins of not only Dravidian but also the Indian Culture as a whole.


To continue

Kumari Kandam by P. Prabhakaran: A Review-6(Final)

We now come to the final post of this review, a great pleasure to read and comment. Prabhakaran has very boldly asserted the colonizing of ancient TN by the Sumerians and who re-created their CaGkam culture in the new soil. There is an abundance of evidences both linguistic and cultural to establish this view quite firmly.

Now this truth raises the question: What made the ancient Sumerians displaced from Kumari, the ancient Sumer possibly the country of the First Cagkam, to choose TN as the landmass to colonize and continue their culture almost in tact?

Prabhakaran suggests not only that the Sumerians had ancient connections with TN through trade and so forth but it was also the famous Tilmun of Gilgamesh Epic, the Paradise Hymn and so forth He provides many arguments to establish that Tilmun was not the Indus Valley civilization as thought by Samuel Kramer followed with Dr Clyde Winters but in fact the ancient KeraLa from where they imported Teak wood and so forth.

He provides an analysis of some seal images to support his claim.

Now while it may be possible that the Sumerians were aware of TN even during the third Millennium period, I doubt very much it was in fact Tilmun, the Paradise. TN at that time was probably populated some tribal people and had no magnificent cities like those in the Indus to deserved to be called a Paradise etc and a land quite thickly populated.

What is Tilmun ?

Tilmun was not the Indus called Meluhha and certainly not TN which began to be colonized only around 800 BC or so, Now I suggest the following as a possibility worth investigating further.

The Paradise Hymn mentions that it was the place where EnKi dances the dance of Bliss(Su nad< Ta. Nadam) with NinSikilla ( the pure virgin) and which is certainly the Dance of Bliss of Siva-Sakti. Thus Tilmun is the same as Tillai ManRu, the metaphysical place where originates all, the primordial Ground where all are created and through the Dance of Siva-Sakti.

Here the etymology of Tilmun helps. We can analyze this into Til- Mun where Su, til, ti means to live, exist etc and Su. mun: earlier, primordial, ancestral etc. These words are still available in Tamil as ti-ti, til(> tin) and Ta, mun as in mun-oor etc.

Thus Tilmun is the place of origin, the primordial ground of all creations etc. Now the meaning of the “place of Origin” suggests that it could the Oasis in Persian Gulf that was flooded in stages forcing the people to migrate towards Sumeria and establish the literary culture of the First CaGkam there.

After the Sumerians settled in their new found Land of ancient Iraq perhaps they called this sunken Oasis parts of which might have been still there Tilmun meaning the Land of Origins, the Land of the ancestors etc. This may also explain why places like Bahrain etc were identified as Tilmun and so forth. This sunken Oasis as large as Britain could have some links also with S.India and hence also known to them

The Culture of Crete

Now Prabhakaram also points out many cultural similarities between the Minoan culture in Crete and Dravidian culture by focusing upon the worship of Zeus that he identifies with siva and Bull worship that comes along with it. He also provides pictorial evidences for the famous Bull Fight, the Jalli Kaddu as another cultural feature common to the Tamils and the people of Crete who in fact served as the model for the birth of Greek cultue,

Al these are of absorbing interest and must be followed up with many more such studies.

Here I must mention that the obvious connections of Dravidian culture with Egyptian and the African Nubian should not be overlooked. There has always been migrations of people from East Africa where recently African Art objects were found in Eastern costs of Sri Lanka dated around the 11th cent AD.

Here I must mention that Snake cult presents an interesting cultural similarity between the East Africans and Dravidians. The Nubian culture was essentially a culture of Snake-cult where interestingly enough this cult is widespread along the coasts of KeraLa.

The Indus

Prabhkaran also points out the people of Indus could have also migrated and settled in the Deep South along with the Sumerian and so forth. But I find his discussions of the Indus civilization can be further improved upon. While the script may be undeciphered but the various statues and busts suggest clearly Black People with Negroid features as the people who developed the magnificent city culture there. The figure of the Dancing Girl is sufficient to show that the main population was the Dark-skinned Dravidian folks and not at all the fair-skinned Aryans or mongoloids,

Concluding Remarks.

Let me conclude this review by really congratulating Prabhakaran for his courage and boldness in articulating the view that the CaGkam Tamils were not native to the soil of TN but rather immigrants who continued their magnificnet culture originally forged in Sumeria. This goes against the view of the native scholars who have also denied any connection with Vedic Aryans. It turns out that both are descendants of the Sumerians and hence ultimately the same group of people and hence no basis at all for the politically well entrenched Aryan-Dravidian divide.

I hope Prabhakaran comes with a revised edition incorporating some of my suggestions here. I also hope many other scholars will take up such studies and bring out further not only the Sumerian connections of the Dravidians but also the Vedic Aryans.




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இப்பக்கம் கடைசியாக 6 ஏப்ரல் 2012, 08:28 மணிக்குத் திருத்தப்பட்டது. இப்பக்கம் 4,152 முறைகள் அணுகப்பட்டது.