SumeruTamil: The Base of Sanskrit-1

மரபு விக்கி இருந்து

தாவிச் செல்ல: வழிசெலுத்தல், தேடுக


SumeruTamil: The Base of Sanskrit-1


Dr K.Loganathan, 2005


It is slowly being accepted that Sumerian is Archaic Tamil and that C.Tamil is a direct continuation of that language. While the questions of how the Sumerians came to India or how the ancient Tamils went to Sumeria remains questions for the future, it is undeniable, as far as my understanding goes, that Sumerian is Archaic Tamil. This also applies to Rigkrit the language of Vedas and Sk that grew out of it and the burden of this series is to convince the scholars that my convictions are NOT misplaced. This conviction follows by the actual study of several of texts- Rig Veda, Bagavath Gita, Purusha Suktam, Rudra Prasannam, Suuria Namaskaaram and so forth. More texts will be taken up for such studies in due course.

In these studies we are also practicing a new kind of Linguistics that I have called Uri-Linguistics, a part of the Process Grammar implicit in Tolkaappiyam and where we peel off the surface layers and expose the primordial forms in phonetic shape and meanings and where also emerges the TAMIL concealed and disfigured.

Now it should be noted continuous reference is made to SumeroTamil texts to bring out these concealed forms so that the element of speculation is reduced and the whole enterprise moves on valid scientific grounds. It will be shown later that this science is another species of Hermeneutic Science where as mentioned in Tol, Artha Sastra and so forth, the practices of Utties (> Sk ukti) turns out to be that which renders the whole field a scientific field. So these studies will also turn out to be recovering the Process Grammar of Tol and applying it boldly to new areas.

I must mention here that most of these studies are not final and I welcome scholarly discussions that would contribute substantially to the furtherance of this science

Loga


Tamil as the Base Language of Sanskrit-1

I


Rig Veda Hymn 1

I shall now take up for an intensive study the First Hymn of Rig Veda and for this I rely on the English translation by Svami Satya Prakash Sarasvati and Satyakam Vidyalankar and published by Veda Pratishthana , New Delhi, 1977. My rendering of the verses just using the ordinary fonts will not be very accurate and hence those who wish to have a more accurate transcription are advised to consult the original which is given both in Devanagri Script as well as English . The author have the meaning along with semantic and other considerations in the notes where the opinions of Sayana (say) , Dayananda ( day), Arobindo (aro) and so forth are also given. These notes have been very useful but I shall also give my own by tracing the words and their meanings to their Sumerian and Tamil occurrences .

I must mention here these studies must be considered only a preliminary kind of attempt for I am neither an expert in Sk nor in Sumerian though may have some expertise in Classical Tamil ( and that too somewhat limited). But undeterred by these limitations I venture with the hope it will initiate more such studies whereby the mysteries surrounding of the genesis of the Vedas can be unraveled in slow measures by such comparative studies.

Hymn 1:1.1

Agnim iile purohitam yajjnasya devam ritvijam / hotaram ratnadhaatamam

We worship the adorable God, the high priest of cosmic activities, the divine , the one who works through the eternal laws, and who feeds and sustains all that is divine and luminous.

agnim: the foremost leader, makes everything part of himself, drying agent; (Day) : Supreme Lord who is venerable adorable , is available everywhere etc. Also master of tejas, brilliance etc.; (aro) fiery light , mystic fire; God-will

iile : to worship, to adore, to love, to embrace, to praise , and even to desire and yearn for

I shall take this phrase as " agnim ellee " meaning " that Brilliant Light which makes everything"

From the Sumerian sources we have some parallel phrases:

ugnim : warriors , army where 'ug" is to kill , dry up as in Ta. ukku , to decay, dry up , die etc. The Ta. ukra meaning extremely hot as well as very aggressive seems to be also a derivative of this. The Sk. agnim appears to be a variant of this same concept.

Sirbiyam

99. sir-ku-ga-ke-es i-ug-ge-de-es ( At( the sound of ) my sacred song they are ready to die )

  • Ta. ciir kokakee-isu ii ukkidu-isu ( ")

46. ugnim-bi ni-bi-a ma-ra- ab-si-il-e ( It disbands its regiments before you of its own accord)

  • Ta. ukkunam-bi niibiya maa(nRa) ab cillee ( The band of warriors disband themselves on your behave on their own accord)

Sk iilee Ta. ellu

This term 'ellu" is given as the Akkadian equivalent to Su. ku : meaning light but certainly a borrowing from Sumerian as it can be taken as a variant of Su. ri and Ta. eri: fire light etc. eri> eli> ellu : day , day light. The Ta. koo as in kooL means the same . This may be a variant of Su. su Ta. cuu, coo as in cudar, cooti etc.

Collectively then 'agnim illee" can mean " the brilliant light that dries up and kills"

Su. ag , Ta. aaku, aakku and Sk ag

Another possibility is to take 'agnim' as it is and equate 'ag' with Su. ag and Ta. aaku, aakku with 'nim' as an ancient variant of Ta. nam that exists in Su. as nii , corresponding Ta. nii: you, the person. In such usage as Su. nin (sister, lady ) nin-a ( the Great Woman, the Mother Goddess) we have 'nii" simply as tall, lofty, high standing etc. We have also 'nim-se" meaning the higher grounds, the hilly area where the 'nim' here corresponds to Ta. nim, nivar and perhaps also nil: to stand erect and tall.

Thus with this sense we will have "agnim iile" as meaning" the Brilliant Light that is productive of all"

Purohitam and Ta. puroocu, pruootayam etc.


We have a similar occurrence below in Appar Teevaram (naam aarkkung kudiyalloom) niiraanda purootayam aadap peRRoom where 'purootayam' is derived as puur-utayam meaning early day break. However "puur" here seems to mean Ta. puurvam , the ancient or very early. However we have Su. pur, par as in 'gi-par" ( gi=mi pura: dark chamber) where corresponding to it we have Ta. puram, puri etc. meaning the castle , a shelter . Thus purohitam may actually be "pur-uu-ki-dam " literaly lighting up (uu) the dark chamber of the temple ( pur, gi-par) where 'dam' as a noun formative is also frequent in Sumerian. Perhaps originally it meant the temple priest who lights up the inner and dark chamber and later in a metaphorical vein extended to BEING as LIGHT who lights up the whole universe.

Yajnasya and Su. ejen


The word for fire in Su. iji, eji is also rendered as ejen that also means celebrations, festival etc. The grammatical particle 'asya" exists also in such phrases as

Sir 2.

mi-zi me-lam gur-ru ki-aga -an -uras-a ( Righteous woman, beloved of Heaven and Earth).

We can analyze ' an-uras-a" as 'aan uur-asya" or Ta. vaan uurasya , vaan uurattiya where the infix 'as" has become the sound filler "attu' in Tamil. While Su. ejen is obsolete in Tamil it is retained as yajna in Sk in the sense of a ritual of fire though originally it meant also "festival" in general.

Devam and Su. dinger.

I have already pointed out we have Ta. teyvam and Sk deva from Su. dingir ( > dimmer Ak diwer> Sk deva, Ta. teyvam , teevan etc.)

ritvijam and Ta. uru-bi-jam

The Sk rit can also be related to Su. ri, eri but in the sense of Ta. uru : form shape structure color light etc. As a verb it means 'to make, bring into being' etc. The "vi-jam" can be equated with Su. bi-ji-am where 'bi ' corresponds to Ta. paa, or Ta. piiy : to break forth, to pour out etc. Thus "ritvijam" can mean "that which brings forth various kinds of things in the world.

hotaram and Ta. uu-taaram

The 'taram' as meaning the Ta. taru: to give, exists in Su. as well as in "nam-dug-tar-ra-me-en" ( Sulgi Hymn B, 12) and in many other places where it occurs just as 'tar-ra" to give " etc. The 'hoo" can be taken as a variant of Ta. uu : to rise up and from which we have Ta. uuN, uNaa, uNavu etc. originally simply plants but later 'food', the sense in which 'ho" occurs here. Thus 'hotaram' as Ta. uu-taaram is that which forwards food.


ratnatadhatamam .

This word can be derived from Su. ra (ri-a) : to shine forth as Su sud-ra : coming from the high or shining from the high or distance. Thus ratnam (Ta. irattinam) would mean precious stones that sparkle. The word "tamam" may be a variant of Su. dumu : a child which itself may be a derivative from dam-u , what a woman brings forth. Thus 'ratna-dhatu-tamam" may mean "that which brings forth brilliant stones that are precious"

We can reconstruct the Tamil version as follows (just as an aid)

  • Ta. aaknim ellee yajnasya teyvam urutubiijam/ uu-taaram iratntaatu tamam

Thus collectively we can render the meaning as follows:

Homage to that Brilliant Light that is productive of all, that Deity which brings joy to all during the festivals of Light and provides food and material riches in the form of precious stones.

Notes: The words like “ hootaram” “ritvijam” ‘ratnadhaatamam’ are compound words where different root words are taken and through a process of agglutination that involves the deletion of case markers and so forth. We can see that these roots words are Tamil and most of which exist as part of Tamil language to this day.


Tamil as the Base Language of Sanskrit-2

Rigkrit, the Language of the Vedas. more ancient than Sk, contains morphological elements that are definitely relatable to SumeroTamil and C.Tamil showing syntactic relationships that are not normally borrowed. Such are the suffixes ‘bhir’ and ‘ir” which are plural number indicators in Sumerian and C.Tamil. Indicating the plural with a special suffix is characteristic of Dravidian languages to this day and we can see the beginnings in SumeroTamil

The following sloka is chosen for containing these morphological elements. The evolutionary history of such morphological elements also show that Rigkrit must be LATER than SumeroTamil as it is less archaic.

Loga

Hymn 1:1.2

I shall now consider the second sloka in the first hymn that contains words that show that Sanskrit is later because less archaic than SumeroTamil.

agnih puurvebhir rishibhir idyo nuutanair uta/ sa devam eha vakshati

May the adorable God, eternally adorned by the seers of times, past and present, be a source of inspiration to wise men of all ages.

agnih:

Here perhaps a better cognate is Ta. angki meaning both 'fire' and beauty as in 'angkammaa" a name of a village deity but meaning the 'beautiful woman". It exists in Su. as " aga' as in

Sir.

4. aga-zi-de ki-aga (enamored with appropriate tiara)

  • Ta. angka catee kaangka ( lovable because (wearing) really beautiful (ornaments)

The word 'angka' has also become 'aNi" meaning ornaments that are worn . "ki-aga" having become Ta. kaangkai : heat has also become "kaamam" sexual desires and' kaamar " something beautiful. But we can recover the original sense by equating it with Malay : si-ang ( day light) and sayang ( love). The word 'say" here can also be related to Malay saya, the pronoun "I' but in Sumerian 'sa" simply 'someone" and as a variant 'sag, san" that is of wide presence.

'agnih" here may the brilliant light seen as beautiful

puurvebhir , rishibhir

The most interesting morphological element here is "bhir" and which is certainly a later development of Su. ba-e-re as in the following lines


Sir

21. ni-me-lam u-lu-da nam-lu-u-lu ( When mankind comes before you)

22. ni-me -gar-hus-bi u-mu-re-gin (In fear and trembling at (your ) tempestuous radiance)

23. me-ta me-hus-bi su ba-e-re-ti (They receive from you their just deserts)

  • Ta. nii meLLam vizuta uLuuLunam
  • Ta. nooy mey kaal ush(Na)bi uu maar kan(al)
  • Ta. meyttu mey ush(Na)bi cuur (av) varee ti

The grammatical complex 'ba-e-re" ( they) is derived from two more basic words 'ba" ( person) and e-ne > e-re( Ta. inam: a group pf people or creatures). The 'ba" as meaning a person still exists in Indonesia and in Malay it exists as" bapa" (father) perhaps to be derived from 'ba-apa" where Su 'aba' ( as a variant of ama: mother) and Ta. appaa means 'father'.

In Tolkaappiyam we have '-ba" alone as a plural person marker as Ta. en-ba ( say-they). We also have '-manaar" as in "en-manaar pulavar" ( the scholars say-they ..)

It is clear that Sk -bhir above is a late variant of the more primitive " ba-e-re" that exist also in Tamil as 'peer" meaning people.

We can also mention here that Su. mu-re that occurs in these sentences is of a similar genesis (< mu-e-re) and which exists as Ta. maar, ( and 'manaar") the plural person marker in verb morphology. This also exists in Malay as 'mereka' ( they)

The 'ri-shi" may be taken as a Su. (e)ri-ji or (e)ri-si meaning persons who are illuminated, bright, intelligent and so forth. Perhaps from this original sense emerged the secondary notion of 'seers'.

The "puurvee' can be linked with 'puu-uru-ee" where 'Ta. puu meaning to emerge, flower , arise etc. and hence as secondary sense , the point of origin which is more frequently mentioned in Sumerian as ul-li ( Ta. uuzi). It exists in Ta. as puurvam ( the ancient times) and may also be linked with Ta. puraaNam, mythological tales.( , puur-aaNa- am : ancient tales of gods))

idyo

In Su. we have id, id-da meaning a river which is retained in Ta. as iidu: extensive commentary , perhaps words that flow like a river. Perhaps the original word is "idi-a" meaning 'a continuos flow" and hence "unbroken maintenance of tradition"


nutanair : the new , the present ones , the potential ones , the seers in the making etc.

This word can be analyzed as "nuta-na-ere" where 'nuta' corresponds to Ta. nuti ( to project, to throw infront etc). The compound means "those people of the projected future" and hence the novel , the yet to come. It is existent in Ta. as nuutanam: novelty.

uta

This can be taken as a variant of 'uti-a ' ( to emerge) of wide occurrence both in Sumerian and Tamil with the root Ta. uu (to arise, move up etc.)


sa devam: already discussed . Here 'sa' corresponds to Su. sa, sag, san etc.

eha: This is to be analyzed as ' ee-ku-a' where Su. e and Ta. ee(ku) means to go forward

vakshati:

This presents some problems and unfortunately no meanings are given in the notes. However it can be analyzed into "vaku-si-a-ti" derived from " paku-si-a-ti' . The ' ti' exists in Su. as ti as well as til. The line 23 above contains an instance of this. Normally Su . su-ti means "to be in the hands" and derivatively "to receive" and "to be, to exist" and is retained as Ta. titi and Sk. stiti. The term "paku " to divide and distribute or simply to give, can be linked with with Su. ba meaning the same. So collectively it may mean " bless them to be".

Another possibility is to equate this with Ta. vay : to place and hence vay-ku : be in the world, to exist live etc.

So the Tamil version of this sloka would be something like

  • Ta. angki-a: puurvee-ba-ere (e)ri-si-ba-ere iidiyoo nuuta-na-ere uuta/ saa teyvam eeka vaku-si-ati

Oh The adorable (and beautiful) One! Bless the newly emerging bright persons so that they would go ahead in divine pursuits like the bright ones of the ancient times without any disruption ( in this tradition)

Notes: The infixes ‘ba’ and ‘na’ are third person pronominal infixes which are still available in Tamil


Tamil as the Base Language of Sanskrit-3

One of the words that occur in the sloka below is ‘kavikaratuh’ , singer who cries or calls out. This seems to be similar to ‘kapirig’ ( > Ta. kaa-viri: to open the mouth wide) below from the incantations text. It is interesting that this mention comes along with references to sag-gam-mah (> Ta. CaGkam mah) of Kumari and which may the First Tamil CaGkam. Along with the dancing, gudu ( < Ta. koodu: to dance) it appears singing was also developed in this Academy. The ‘kavi-karatuh” of the Vedas perhaps are the lineal descendents of these incanting priests and the Vedic slokas are such incantations

215. ga-e gudu sag-gam-mah ju me-en ( I am the anointing (gudu)-priest , the knowledgeable sangam mah)

216. ga-e lu asilal (ki) me-en ( I am the man of Asilal?)

217. ga-e ka-pirig [A-HA](ki) he-sikil-la he-ga-dadag-ga me-en ( I am the incantation priest of Ku'ar , who indeed cleansed , and also purified)

218. . gudu susbu (d)en-ki-ga me-en ( I am the anointing priest, the purification priest of Enki)

  • Ta. Gaayee koodu cangkam maa: cuu maan ( I am ritual dancer ( koodu) who knows the rules established by the Great caGkam)
  • Ta. Gaayee aacu-ilal maan ( I am the man from Asillal ( the where there are no impurities)
  • Ta. Gaayee kaapiri Kumari (Kauri) ey sukilla, eyka taGtaGku maan ( I am the incantation priest of Kumari (Kauri), attained purity and also attained living long)
  • Ta. koodu coobu ENkiizkka maan ( I am the brilliant dancer of ENkiiz)


Hymn 1.5

The very interesting final sloka of the First hymn goes as below:

agnir hotaa kavikaratuh satyas citrasra-vastamah / devo devebhir aa gamat:/

The adorable God, the source of vitality and knowledge, the giver and acceptor, is truth personified, and divine unparalleled. may He be a source of inspiration to the aspirants.

agnir hotaa:

This can be taken as 'agni-ir uutaa' where " uutaa" means 'to flow out , to blow' as in Su. uta and Ta.uutu. The primordial meaning of Ta. uu: to radiate , to blow is retained here. The -ir in 'agni-ir" may be a variant "-il" the locative/ablative case marker . Collectively it means : whatever that radiates out from the Glorious Fire

kavikratuh satyas : kavi: inspired person; kratu: source of knowledge; satyas: true in knowledge etc.

The term 'kavikratuh" appears to be quite certainly Ta. kavi-karaitu meaning what the singers utter or sing out. The word 'ka" exists in Su. as "mouth ' as "ka-ta-e-a' meaning to narrate but literally ' coming out from the mouth'. As I have pointed out this 'ka' as mouth is retained in Tamil only as frozen form as in 'kaa-viri" the branching mouth, a name for the river Kaaveeri. The word 'kataittal' is still retained with the meaning ' conversing' in Sri Lankan Tamil.

The word Ta. karai is a variant of Ta. kali : to cry out . In Su. in occurs as 'gala' the Akkadian equivalent ( or borrowing) is given as "kalu^", the ritual singer. . The following is an instance of it:

Sir.

139. ni gi-u-na ma-ra-an- du-ga ( That which I recited to you at (mid) night)

140: gala an-NE-ke su hu-mu-ra-ab-gi-gi ( may the singer repeat it to you at noon)

  • Ta. nii mai-uu-na maanRaan tuukka
  • Ta. kalai vaanakkee ummonRa av cuur mii-mii

The ' saty-as' can be taken as a variant of Su. ji-de-es : something true , authentic, right , appropriate etc. We may note here that 'gala ' can be derived from 'gal' meaning to sing and which has a variant 'kar, karai" meaning to cry , to call out etc. The Su. su/ju as equivalent to Ta. cuur ( cf. Malay suruh: to tell) might have become Ta. kuuRu: to tell etc.

The 'satyas" may be a variant of Su. ji-de-es. (= zi-de-es)

Sir.

4. aga-zi-de ki-aga nam-en-na tum-ma ( Enamoured of the appropriate tiara, suitable for high priest-hood)

  • Ta. angka jittee kiaangka eeNNanam takumma ( Beautiful with true ornaments, really fit for the divine status)

ji-de-es> satte-es > satyas

Thus 'kavikratuh satyas" can be taken to mean " utterances that are true"

citrasravastamah: the inspiring; the source of inspiration

We can break up this phrase into " citrasra vastamah " where 'citasra' can be taken as Su. sid-ra-as-ra where the primordial meaning of Su. sid is to recite , think and so forth. Taking this as "cittanRa aakiRa" we can see that it means that which promotes thinking reflecting etc. The 'vastamah' can be taken as " vastu-maa" meaning great (ma, Su. ma, mah) stuff ( Ta. vastu, vattu Su. ba-as-ti: that which is) Collectively the phrase means: the great and real stuff that stimulates the mind.

deva devebhir: divine with powers divine

This can be taken as "tivya teeva-ba-ere " where the latter word parallels Su. dinger-e-ne, the gods. In fact this word can be taken as a late form of Su. dinger-bi-ene. It means: the divine essence of the gods.

aa gamat:

Perhaps this is the same as Su. a ki-a-ma-ta (= Ta. aa kii-aamma-t-tu) meaning : come down and be in the world. Or it colud be : aa kummatu : to become and crowd (the world) where Ta. kum, kam means 'to assemble, to crowd " etc.

Thus whole sloka can be reconstructed as

agni-ir uuta kavikaraitu satyas citrasra vastamah/ devoo devee-ba-e-re aa gaamattu

Let there be great productivity of the mind as the blessings of the (inner) Fire of brilliance; let the divine essence of the gods come down to the world and be there


Tamil as the Base Language of Sanskrit-4

The following 7th sloka is chosen here to show the peculiar importance it has in relation to the syntactic resemblance Rigkrit has to C.Tamil. The sentence ‘dive-dive dosha vastir dhiya vayam’ can easily be recognized as the C.Tamil “ Tinam tinam tuuci vast-ere tiiya vaiyum’ and which means “ Every day Thou should burn off the dirty stuff within”. The Vedantic traditions in Indian philosophy have long lost this “dosha vastu” but it has been retained in Tamil Saivite and VaishNava Thinking as Maalam TukaL, maacu, aacu and so forth.

This also shows that the Vedic Thinking was not only substantially different from Vedantic but closer to the SumeroDravidian where the notion of becoming PURE by burning off the dirt within, the malam, maacu, tukaL and so forth remains central.

The sentence above which has the same structure as the Tamil imperative or hortative clause has ‘vayam’ i.e. vaiyum where the ‘um’ is the same imperative marker ‘um’ as in ‘ceyyum’ ‘pookkum’ etc. It may be a variant of the second person singular marker Su. mu Ta. moo and thus vai.moo> vaiy-um.


Hymn 1.7


The seventh sloka of the first hymn goes as below:

upa tvaagnee dive-dive doshavastar dhiya vayam/namo bharanta emasi

Day and night , we approach you, with reverential homage through sublime thoughts and noble deeds.

upa : the very high, heavenly; or in those days or times

This word has many meanings both in Su. and Ta. The best here is Ta. upper, umpar etc. meaning the high, the heavenly. This sense is available in 'u' which is said to have a variant 'u-bar' and the following personal name contains an instance of it.

The Instructions of Suruppak

7. suruppak dumu ubar-tu-tu-ke ( Suruppak, the son of Ubartutu )

The name 'ubartutu' can be taken as Ta.uppertuutu meaning utterances (tuutu) coming from the heavens (ubar) and which is also the meaning of the phrase "upa-ni-sad' where 'sad-u" is Ta. caaRRu

"upa" can also mean "in those days ' as below

4. u-ba gestu-tuku inim.galam inim-zu-a kalam-ma ti-la-am ( In those days, the intelligent one, who made the elaborate words, who knew the (proper) words, and was living in Sumer

  • Ta. uuba kestutoku enamkalam enamcuuva kaLamma tillaam ( " )


tvaagne : tuu-av-agni?

Here 'tuu" as a derivative from 'su' may mean "pure, unblemished ' as in Ta. tuu. The "av' is a pronominal infix corresponding to Su. ab. Or may be tuu-va, tuu-ya etc.

dive-dive : already discussed, corresponds to Ta. tinam tinam: everyday (see Hymn 1.3)


dhosavastar : 'dosa' means night and hence 'vastah' means day?

This may not be so as the presence of ' dive dive ' carry roughly the same notion. We have other equivalents like "toosam" meaning faults defects etc. that has the root Ta. tuuci : dirt, dust etc. The word Ta. tukaL meaning also dirt , powder etc. carries the metaphysical state of being impure, being evil etc. The ' vastar' can be the 'vastu" , substance and hence 'dhosavastar' the "tooca vastu" or Ta. tuuci vastu : the metaphysical stuff that makes one evil and ignoble, the 'malam' , the mind darkening stuff.

This meaning fits better as a contrast to agni who is said to be "tuu" i.e. Pure.

dhiya vayam:

This can be taken as Ta. tiiya vai-am meaning "cause them to be burnt off" a meaning that fits well with the meaning of 'dhosavasatr' as Ta. tuucu vastu or tukaL.

namo bharanta :

The 'namo' can be taken as Ta. nam-uu meaning 'we" . This could be also a variant of nin-mu ( "My lady" but here generalized to : my Lord! Perhaps also " nam-uu" that which gives the good ( nalam)

"bharanta" can be analyzed as "bar-an-ta" where it means the earth ( Ta. paar) and the heavens ( Su. an Ta. vaan). Thus it can be another NAME for agni, meaning "He who stands as the heaven and earth". Also taking "anta" as the limit or the deep interior, it can also mean " the BEING deep within the manifest world"


emasi

This can be taken as the Su. si-imma where 'si' is Ta. cii,ii : to give , to present etc.

Sir.

14. an-ne me-si-ma nin ur-ra u-a ( endowed with me's by An, lady mounted on a beast)

  • Ta. aaNNee mey ciiyimma nin uura oova ( " )

The ' ciiyimma' could have become 'imma-cii" and from this "emasi" above.


We have also the following occurrence of this phrase.

Sir.

138: im-ma-si-im-ma diri-ga-ta nin un-gal ma-ra-tu-ud ( With "ot is enough for me. it is too much for me !" i have given birth Oh Exalted lady, (to this song) for you

  • Ta. imma ciiyimma tirikaata nin ungkaL manRa todu ( " )

Here 'si-im-ma' (Ta. ciiyimma) could be taken to mean: to fulfill to the utmost and this may actually the sense of 'emasi" here.

Thus the sloka can be recovered as

uupa tuuva agniee divee divee tooca vastu tiiya vaiyum/ namoo paaranta yimma-cii

Oh thou the Pure Fire in the heavens! We implore that you burn off the dirt stuff within us every day. Oh Lord the deep within world , grant us this to our utmost satisfaction!



Tamil as the Base Language of Sanskrit-5

As we have mentioned, in the activity of retrieving the concealed Tamil of Rg we are practicing a new kind of Linguistics that we have called Uri Linguistics - that of peeling off the surface layers (uri) to expose the inner and true core of the words and hence also their meanings. In the following verse we have done this for the important Rg words like ‘vaayu’ ‘soma’ and so forth and which illustrates the power of this kind of science. Anyone comparing the difference in the meaning given and based on Sayana and that I give can see that I have managed to unearth the original meaning to a satisfying degree. This also goes to show that traditional Sanskrit scholarship may not be ADEQUATE for most of them are mere conjectures, guess works intuitions and so forth.

I derive ‘vaayu’ from Ta. ‘vaan-u’ with the meaning something that comes out (u. uu) from the sky (vaan) and hence not necessary the air, wind and so forth but also the Power that is given from the metaphysical space and which agrees with the meaning of ‘lil’ as in Enlil in Sumerian, the Lord of Breathing of the Cosmos. While finality is not claimed but it is certainly very useful to practice this kind of Uri Linguistics to unearth the primordial meaning of Rig Vedas Slokas and which is possible only by recovering its Tamil base.

Excessive depends on traditional grammarians is not a great help here for most of them did not see and acknowledge the Tamil base of Sanskrit.

Hymn 2.2

With the excitement of discovering more and more intimate connections of the language of Rig Veda with Sumerian in my mind let now come the second Sloka of the Second Hymn which goes as below:

vaaya ukthebhir jarante tvaam aachaa jaritarah/ sutasomaa aharvidah

O Lord of the cosmic vitality, we, your devotees, invoke you with holy praises, pouring forth sweet emotional yearning from our hearts.


vaaya ukthebhir:

We have already discussed 'vaaya" as Su. an-a and Ta. vaan-a where we have the phonological change -n- > -y- . We must notice that the suffix '- a' is certainly Tamil, the cuddu 'a' used however as the locative/ablative/possessive case marker and is mentioned as the 'atu enum veeRRumai' in Tolkaappiayam where it is also mentioned that it will also occur as '-a' when the object named is of the nonperson gender.

ukthebhir : uktha: holy praises, stotras, hymns of praise, lauds recited or spoken in opposition to the verse or sung

I have already discussed 'bhir' as a variant Su. ba-ere and Ta. peer , a plural marker of the person gender which also includes the devas.

The "uktha" can be taken as a variant of Su. utu, uti and Ta. utti ( Sk ukti) as in 'otta kaadci utti" in Tol. Marabiyal last sutra. The meaning appears to be that which causes 'uti', i.e. something emerging as there --uu-ti. The root appears to be Su. u , Ta. uu meaning light, coming to light etc. There is also another word Su. us Ta. ooccu, to drive away with magical incantations , Ta. uccaadanam, exorcism. This may be related SK. ukthu ( Ta. oottu) here ( to praise,
recite , incant etc.)

We have an instance of 'us" ( to recite etc) below

Udug Hul

33.

us-dug hul-bi-ta eme ba-ni-dab-dab-be-es ( the spels thorugh their evils seized the tongue)

  • Ta. uccu tukku olbitta emmee(?) baNNi tabutabbiyisu ( ")

However the most appropriate seems to be Su. us and Ta. ucci , the top or as a verb to move out to the top.

Thus 'vaaya ukthebhir" can mean " those in the sky who cause something to emerge or who emerge out to the fore"

jarante : ?

This can be related Su. sar and Ta. cari : to move or flow. The following are instance of it.

Sir.

50.

gurus-sa-gan-bi lu-ese ma-ra-ab -sar-re-es ( It drives its young adult before you as captives)

  • Ta. kurucil caGkanbi aaLuvici maanRa av saariyicu

91. (d) sun-zi-mu lu he-mi-sar-re lu he-im-mi-in dab-be ( My divine impetuous wild cow, drive away this man, capture this man!)

  • Ta. cuunjimoo aaLu eeymi cariyee aaLu ee yimmin adaippee( " )

Thus 'jarante' can be taken as Ta. carintee : to flow out or cause to flow out.

Another possibility is Ta. curantee : to ooze out where Ta. cur, cori means to flow or cause to flow like milk from the udders of the cow.

Another word related to this Su. sil , Ta. cel and Malay jal-an meaning to go move out, travel etc. The Ta/Sk calam jalam : water, may actually mean 'something that flows" and hence derivatively water.

We have an instance of Su. sil as below:

Udug-hul

64. sil-igi-mu-ta .......... ( Depart from before me .......)

65. zi an-na he-pa zi ki-a he-pa ( Be you adjured by heaven, be you adjured by earth)

  • Ta. cel imai moo-t-ta ....
  • Ta. jii vaanna eeypa jii kiiza eeypa

tvaam aachaa jaritarah: we invoke you with holy praises.

The word 'aachaa' appears to be related Ta. arcci meaning offer prayers etc. We have also words Ta. araatanai etc. This is related to Su. ar and Ta. aa, aar, cause to be amazed (Ta. viyappu) which is available in Ta. accoo, aa-c-cariyam: something amazing, bewildering etc.

Sulgi

324. ar-e zag li-bi`- til-til-la-mu ( My praise will never be finished)

  • Ta. aaree caakai ili biiyi tiir tiiramoo ( ")

Note : Su. ar Ta. aar : praise as in aaraati etc. We have also Ta. aaravaaram where it simply means "loud noise" a secondary meaning arrived at by the duplication of the verb 'aar"

However the best possibility is to take 'aacca 'as Su. a-se Where Su. a & Ta. am, aal etc. means water.

The ' jaritarah' as Ta. caritaru, coritaru i.e. effect the ritual actions where ' jari ' as Ta. cariyai : rituals involving bodily movements.

Thus 'aaccaa jaritarah' can mean " sprinkle water" i.e. the suklaam parataram.

sutasomaa aharvidah:

Here 'aharvidah' taken as Ta. akalvida ( akal-idu) would mean 'in order to remove' . But what ? with this question we have to approach the meaning of the enigmatic 'sutasomaa'. Here we have Ta. cutam : destruction, injury , loss etc. as relevant. Thus "sutasomaa" would mean the destruction of somaa and which is desired to be removed.

Thus the sloka can be rendered as

vaana ukthebhir carinte tuvaam aaccha coritarah/ sutamsoomaa akalvidah

  • Ta. வான உக்தேபீர் சரிந்தே துவம் ஆச்சே சொரிதரு/ சுதம்சோமா அகல்விட



Oh! Deities who come down emerging out from sky ( heavens), we pray unto you sprinkling pure waters so that you would remove the destruction of pleasures ( in our life)


Tamil as the Base Language of Sanskrit-6

In the Sloka below we have some key terms in Indian philosophy and which are quite unintelligible unless we trace the roots and link them with Archaic Tamil i.e. Sumerian. What I have in mind are the words ‘ praprinjcati’ and ‘uruucii somapiitaye’. Here the first word has the roots ‘para-para’ that can be traced to Su. bala-bala where ‘bal’ means to cross over and which is retained as the basic meaning of Ta. paalam, the bridge that helps one to cross over a river. It occurs in Sumerian as ”sa-bal-bal-la” in the sense of future generations. It can also be linked with Ta. pirapanjcam , the universe but which means here something that is in historical flux, a notion central to Saiva Cosmology where it is said that one thing emerges from the death of another and which in turn dies giving birth to another and so forth and thus allowing for the flux with continuity. It is this notion that underlies the Buddhists view that the universe is a FLOW of momentary particulars but with nothing substantial.

Now the clause “uruucii somapitaayee” is definitely recognizable as Tamil for both ‘uruci” and ‘piitu” are even now available. It also clarifies that ‘soma’ is a flow , a kind of juice that can be drunk and tasted. The overall sentence suggests that ‘soma’ is ‘su-ma’ , something that enlightens and which flows out from Vaayu and which flows unendingly.

This notion of Historical Flux also brings along with it the notion of Karma as the Prabta Karma (< para-ab-ta) and so forth. By the way the notion of Karma is well articulated in the Sumerian incantation texts where there is talk of ‘pab-gal’ , the great evils a person has done and which serve as the causes of diseases and so forth


Hymn 2.3

The third sloka of the second hymn goes like this :


vaayo tava praprinjcati dhenaa jigaati daasushe / uruucii somapiitaye

O Lord of cosmic vitality, your inspiring voice resounds all through the thoughts and feelings of your devotees, the preceptors of divine wisdom, who have tasted the sweetness of your favors.


vaayo tava praprinjcati

vaayo : already considered.

The' -o ' may be invocative, the viLi of Tol.

tava praprinjati : your inspiring words?

We can analyze this complex as : para-para- in-cati , where "para-para" denotes continues flow. The root appears to be Su. bal-bal-a which has given us Ta. paramparai, paarampariyam and so forth and which is attested in many Indian languages. From the root meaning 'flowing across unbroken" , it has come to mean a tradition , a 'marabu' as said in Tol..

From the root meaning of ' bara', to flow, to cross over we have many words in Tamil. We have 'paratal' , to spread out, paraNi; a river and as a derivative of this we have 'paravai, the sea. The word paraNi, meaning a river is noted in the name of a river TaamiraparaNi.

We can also note here 'baratam' as a derivative of this -- the science of movement.

Dwaraka

The ' dwaraka' of Lord Krishna of MahaBharata may actually be "tu-ba-ra- akam", the place of pure waters or river of pure or fresh waters.


We can cite the following evidences for this :

Sulgi

6. sa-bal-bal-a egir-u-da inim su a-bal-e-de ( In order to pass down word to the generations of the future)

  • Ta. caan parampara etiruda enam collal itee ( " )

67. za-pa-ag-bi-se gaba-mu ba-ra-ba-ra-gal ( would direct my course towards the roar)

  • Ta. japambicee kavanama parapara kaal ( I would hasten towards the roar carefully)

Here ba-ra-ba-ra, also related to movement is retained in Ta. as parapara as an adverb, and paraparappu as a noun.

There is also Su. bal-a in the sense of 'to cross over' and which may be the root of Ta. paalam: bridge, that which helps to cross over. The Sk praptam can also be related to this word as 'para-ab-tam" , that which crosses over.

However the most appropriate but also related to above sense is to analyze it as "paraparanjam-aati" from which may have evolved Ta. pirapanjam-si-ati, that pertaining to the manifest universe that is characterized by FLOW and CHANGE, a metaphysical notion that is central to many Indian darsanas.

Thus the phrase " vaayo tava praprinjcati" can be taken to have the meaning: Oh Vayu! You are the foundation of the Universe.

dhenaa jigaati daasushe:

Taking this as " tina jigaat taasu-se " and equating 'tina" with 'dive' of 1.3 , and taking 'daasu', as already analyzed as those who have abandoned themselves for divine service, the taasan and taasi, this phrase can be taken to mean " in the daily life of the devotees" and the whole sentence to mean : O Vayu! You are the foundation of the Universe and the daily life of the devotees.

We are taking 'jigaat' as "ji-ga-atu", the living, the existence.

uruucii somapiitaye

This phrase, is quite straight forward. We have here the Ta. uruci-i meaning ' to taste" and taking "pii-ta" as Ta. piitu/paaytu etc. i.e. that which flows or oozes out, we can see that the meaning is " to taste that which oozes out from Soma or the Soma juice"

Thus the whole sloka can be reconstructed as below:

Vayoo! tava piraparanjaati tina jigati taasu-se/ uruci-i somapiitaye

  • Ta. வாயோ தவ பிரபரஞ்சாதி ஜிகாதி தாசுசே/ உருசி-இ சோமபீதாயே


Vayu! You are the foundation of the universe and the daily life of your devotees; let them taste the juice that flows out from Soma

Tamil as the Base Language of Sanskrit-7

We have been fooled into thinking that Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-European family of languages with very forced ‘linguistic’ evidences where as a matter of fact the whole of Rigkrit is just another variation of SumeroTamil and which is a species of Archaic Tamil. It must be noted that we are not talking of just lexical borrowings but the whole of the language where every ROOT is Tamil and almost every morphological and syntactical features are also very Dravidian. What is interesting is there are hundreds of CLAUSES that are distinctly very similar to C.Tamil and the following “varuutham tanve’ ( Ta. varuttam taNivi) is one of them What is interesting is that like ‘dive-dive dosha vastir dhiya vayam’( Ta. tinam tinam tuusivastu-iree tiiya vaiyum) , this clause is distinctly C.Tamil and which raises the question about the dates of Rig Veda. There has been more astrological fantasia than a scientific study of the Rg where they ascribe dates like 3000 BC, 10000 BC and so forth. We can brush aside these as pure nonsense and ascribe a date, say around 1000 BC or so on the basis of the presence of such clauses as “Varuttam TaNivi” as located and studied here.

This is again imperative or hortative where the suffix ‘-vi” may be a variant of the pronominal suffix ‘ mu, mi” and so forth. The mu-a> ma also occurs extensively as here also ‘ ma-ma” where in Tamil it would ‘emma”. There are many parallels even in modern Tamil: kaaNbi (show) kolvi (kill) uNbi (cause to eat). Here it is worth noting that ‘bi” can also be the causative as in the CaGkam inscriptional Tamil ‘koddu-bi-t-taan” etc.

Unless we are armed with sufficiently fluent knowledge of SumeroTamil and C.Tamil we will be BLIND to see such features of Rigkrit that clearly show that it is a kind of Tamil and though distorted in many ways but recognizable as Tamil quite clearly at least in such cases as this which do not require great efforts in the retrieval exercise.

I am not sure how PaNini Patanjali etc can be any help here. It appears to me that such grammarians remain a mental block rather than a help for they DO NOT articulate not only the notion of BASE language for Sanskrit but seem to give a description of Sk where such aspects of Sk are quite UNTHINKABLE.

Loga

Rig Veda 1:29


The Rig ‘varuutham tanve’ and Ta. varuttam taNivi


While the whole language of Rigkrit is Archaic Tamil closely related to SumeroTamil but there many phrases and clauses which points to the fact Rg is also closer to C.Tamil so much so that date of Rig Vedas cannot be as ancient as it is made out to be (and mostly through the very unreliable astrological dating over which there is very little consensus). I have pointed many such phrases and the following is another one of them.


Of the things we notice is that there is an abundance of semivowels, the udanpaadu mey that in Sumerian though available but not was in great abundance as a separate glyph for it was invented only very late. It was as abundant as in RG, they would have probably invented a special glyph for reading that important phoneme. Thus the yaaba, enne, yenna remain ‘a-ba’ and ‘a-na’ in Sumerian and in Rg they occur in forms the same as C.Tamil . The ‘varuutham’ in this sloka also shows the presence of ‘v’ as in Tamil but which occurs as ‘b’ in SumeroTamil.


The full sloka goes as follows:


Rig Veda 1:29


Apah priniita bheshajam varuutham tanve mama/


Ca suuryam drise//


The meaning is given by Swami Satyap Praksjh Saraswati as follows:


O waters, bring to perfection all disease-dispelling medicaments for the up-keep of my body, so that I may live long to see the bright sun


The Tamil base can be reconstructed as follows:


Appu! Paariniitu-a bisiya-jiam varuttam taNivi maamma/

Caan suuryam taru-si //


அப்பு! பாரி.நீத பீசியஜியம் வருத்தம் தணிவி மாம்ம/

சான் சூர்யம் தரி-சீ//


Meaning:


O waters! Promote the growth of health plants (bisiya-jiam) so that they are in abundance over the surface of the earth ( paari niita) and help to assuage my pains and cure diseases ( varuttam taNivi maamma) so that I can continue to see the sun (for a long time to come)( ca suuryam tari-si)


Lexical Notes;


Apah : Ta. appu : waters more as one of basic elements.


See Su a-ab-ba: sea : broad and extensive(a, Ta. aal) waters( ab-ba)


a-ab-ba -igi-nim-ta : from the upper sea (Gadd. P. 22)


pariniita: paar-nii-ta :


Ta. paar: the earth, < paal: the desert land


Nii: Su. ni-n, ni-m : soothing tall and high . See nim-se: the higher grounds, nim: upper( see above). Ta. nil: to stand tall and erect; niiL: to be long and tall.


The ‘ta” is Ta ‘t-a’ where the ‘t’ is the ‘attu’ caariyai and ‘-a: is locative case marker.

Now it will be said as “paar miithu”( À¡÷Á£Ð)



Bheshajam = bisiya-jiam ( jiam> jam)


Bi: to blossom, grow etc . See. puu, vii: blossoms; puu-mi: that which has emerged.


Siya : bright and healthy, strong. This is a very common word in Sumerian as occurs as ‘si’ ‘su’ etc. si . Ta. sii, AK siri> ta. siri> Tiru , Sk sri etc.


The ‘a’ is the Cuddu ‘a’ serving here as pronominal function.


Jam> ji-am : living well. Su. ji: life . ji-ji-i : to work very hard


See Mutariibiyam ( Sulgi Hymn B)


17. ji-ji-i ga-ga sid-nig-sid-de ( (and striving and toiling went through their course in all the science of numbers)



varuutham : varuttam.


This word is almost identical except for vowel and exists seven now in active use and in sense of ‘pains, sufferings’ and so forth. The root may be maru-uth-am : conjoining or experiencing (utham< uRRam) death ( maru, mari)


Tanve: Ta. taNivi : ta pacify, cool down, calm down etc.


38. sa ib-ba-za a-ba i-te-en-te-en ( who can temper your raging heart?)


39. sa-hul-gal-la-za te-en-te-bi mah-a (Your malevolent heart is beyond tempering)


Here obviously Su, te-en is Tamil TaN, taN which is still in active use. Here the verbal form i-te-en-te-en has become taN.taN.i with ‘i’ perhaps a tense marker. Also te-en-ta is Ta taNittu with te-en-te-bi as ‘taNittuvai”



Caan suuryam taru-si : these words have already been discussed . Su. sag- san, ta-an: Ta. taan : person,. Self. Suuryam is derived from Su. sul, sur, sun etc and which exists in Ta. as suul, suur, suun etc. taru-si: the giving of (Su. tar-ra, Ta. taru) of viision ( Su. si)


Concluding Remarks:


The closeness of Varuutham tanve’ to Ta. varuttam taNivi shows that Rig Veda cannot be very distant from C.Tamil. It may be just few centuries older.




Tamil as the Base Language of Sanskrit-7

I have chosen the following sloka to substantiate my claim that Tamil constitutes the basis of Sanskrit for the reasons that it contains the phrases ’sunvata’ and ‘dhiiya nara” which are etymologically and grammatically clearly Tamil. The “sunvata’ may actually be ‘suun-vati-a” the people of the deserts or an archaic form of Ta. suunyavaati the peopel who cheat people with all kinds of tricks, quite often magical. Now ‘dhiya nara’ is definitely Tamil ‘ tiiya narar’ and which is expressed now as ‘tiiya maantar’ , the evil people. Now it will be interesting to investigate why Ta. tii, Su. de meaning ‘fire’ should have come to be used as equivalent to “eviL’ . Perhaps among the Rig Vedic people, attacks by foreign tribes and burning down their cities or settlements was frequent so that ‘people with fire’ also acquired the sense of ‘evil people’. Such people may actually be the ‘sunvata’ the desert tribes.

This may indicate the experiences of the Sumerians whose cities were plundered and burnt down by the Semitic tribes from deserts like Gutians and so forth.

Now we also note that the phrase ‘ dhiya nara’ resembles more such compounds in C.Tamil than in SumeroTamil where the attributive term, though ending with the ‘-a’ but occurs following the noun than preceding as in “e- gal-la, Legal ari-a” and so forth. That the attributive compounds as here RESEMBLE more the order of C.Tamil also shows that the whole of Rig Veda cannot be very distantly located from C.Tamil and perhaps again a reasonable date is around 1000 BC or so.


Hymn 2.6

This sloka parallels the above in many ways and hence a bit easier to see the Sumerian connections and meanings.

vayav indras ca sunvata a yaatam upa nishkritam/ makshv ittha dhiya nara

O source of cosmic vitality and Lord-resplendent, may you bless the devotee for his dedication. Only your blessings will enable him to realize his aspirations.

vaayav indras : vaan-av indi-ra-es : You Vaayuu! the source of worldly pleasures!

ca sunvata: that/those which burns off or destroys; or those aggressive and destructive elements from desert regions

This is quite easy to identify as a variant of Su. sur-va-ta where 'sur' occurs both as 'sul' (Ta. cuul) and 'sun' ( Ta. cuun). The meaning is quit clear: that which burns, turns into a waste land or those from the desert-like regions, etc. It is this 'cuun" that underlies the later philosophical notion popularized by the Bhuddists: cuunyam ( emptiness, nothingness)

aa yaatam: (they) come over here

upa nishkritam: they (upa) do destructive actions

The 'upa' here is Ta. u-pa where 'u' is the intermediate deitic marker while the others are 'a' (that) 'i' (this) .

The 'nishkritam' should be analyzed, I think, as 'na-shi-kar-tam' and hence taken to have the meaning " do destructive actions, evil deeds etc., a meaning that fits the description of those described as as "sunvata". Perhaps here we have 'na-shi> Ta. naacam : destruction , Ta. naci: to destroy, devastate etc.

makshiv ittha dhiya nara:

While "ittha dhiya nara" can certainly be equated with Ta. itta/ inta tiiya nara : these evil people, 'makshiv" sounds a bit problematic . However by analyzing it as "mak-shi-av" and equating 'mak' with Ta. makku : to cause to decay, disintegrate, the whole expression can be taken to have the meaning: you should cause these evil persons to decay ( or become ineffective).

The word 'nara' meaning 'persons or human beings', quite well attested even in Tamil, can be taken as a derivative from Su. ni-e-re where 'ni' means 'person, a human being" (Ta. nii) and 'e-re' is the plural marker Su. ene and Ta. inam

Thus overall the reconstructed form of the sloka will

vaaya-av indira-es ca sunvata aa yaatam upa nash-kartam/ mak-shi-av itta tiiya nara

and the meaning to be:

You vaayu, the source of world pleasures! T aggressive people come over here and do actions that are destrutive and make them these evil individuals ineffective (or decay)

வாயுஅவ் இந்திரயிசு ! சா சூன்வத ஆ யாதம் உப நாசகர்தம்/ மக்குசிஅவ் இந்த தீய நர.



Notes: It is quite clear that at the time this sloka was composed there were many attacks by the 'sunvata' which can also be taken to mean 'those who come from desert and arid regions.

-_______________________________________________________________________________

Tamil as the Base Language of Sanskrit-8

My claim that Tamil is the BASE language of Rg and Sk should NOT be mistaken for the lesser claim that Tamil words and phrases were borrowed into Rigkrit through co-existence intermingling and so forth. When we view Rg and Sk with a good knowledge of SumeroTamil we can see that Rg and Sk are simply languages built upon an Archaic Tamil, a variant of Tamil intermediate between SumeroTamil and C.Tamil. For the fact is almost all the ROOTS are Tamil and there are almost the SAME syntactic features and which are NOT borrowed normally, with however some differences that can be explained in terms of the evolutionary changes. Relating Rg and Sk to SumeroTamil is something NEW as also relating C.Tamil to it. This allows us to SEE commonalities that were not seen before.

Now I have chosen the following verse VII-1 for a number of reasons. First we can see here a cultural continuity where the same metaphysical insight is communicated with almost the SAME metaphor. It is stated in both that BEING emerges like FIRE in the dry wood on being rubbed severely.

The compounds ‘ di~dhitibhir ‘ ( tii-ti-ti-peer) ‘ ha~stacyutii ‘ ( hasta-cii-uti) ‘duuredrisam’ ( Ta. tuura-tarisanam) ‘ grihaspatim (Ta. karukas patim) are clearly compound words which are generated with deletion of case particles and so forth a typical grammatical feature or IlakkaNam that remains the SAME in SumeroTamil , C.Tamil, Rigkrit and Sanskrit. Now while lexical borrowing is quite common but NOT such IlakkaNam that go to IDENTIFY the language as belonging to a certain family of languages. Here for example “didhitibhir” (Ta. tii.ti.ti-peer) is a Case Compound Word or a Samajam of Sk grammar where the concealed clause is “tii-ayai ti-ti-peer” and where the accusative case marker or its equivalent “ai’ gets deleted and the remaining words glued together so that the complex thus generated functions as if a single word.


Note also that the word ‘hasta” (hand) does not seem to have a Tamil root and that it may be a variant of Akkadian “hasus” This may point out that people who spoke Rigkrit were familiar with the Akkadians and intermingled with them. This may again point to the former existence of these people in Sumeria where Akkadian was spoken and which displaced Sumerian towards the close of third millennium BC. There are many Akkadian words both in Tamil and Sk and which will be pointed in due course.


Loga


Rig Veda Mandala VII Hymn 1


Appar and Rig Veda


The question has been raised as to how relevant the Vedas are to the present world. Questions pertaining to how relevant are SumeroTamil studies for understanding Hinduism are similar to this. For one thing for historians of culture, language and religion, such studies provide valuable insights into the formative processes underlying the basic insights into all these and has an importance of its own. However I also believe that some basic insights available in those distant days are also currently relevant and constitute an important component of the present culture. It appears that while many ideas and insights might have become obsolete and dead this may not be so for all. When Suruppak (c. 3000 BC) declared that 254. nig.nam nu-kal ji ku-ku-da (Nothing is precious (except) a sweet life) ( Ta. nikaz.nam naa-kal, jii kukkuidu (If you do not study the happenings around, your mind will go to sleep) and 246. nig.nam kal-kal-en nig.e me-kal-kal ( Ta. nikaznam kalkaliyen mikavee mey kal.kal: If you study the happenings around, you will be learning greatly many truths), we can see that there is an astounding continuity in the cultural ethos and which has been the central element with Tamil culture to this day constituting its essence. When Tolkaappiyar declares all studies must be mey NeRittu ( truth seeking) and TiruvaLLuvar declares “meypporuL kaaNpatu aRivu” ( the mark of intelligence is to seek out truths) we have a philosophical orientation that has survived over millenniums and in a language that is quite intelligible even now.


What I want to point out here is that I have located a theme in Rig Veda that finds its echoes in the words of Appar and which again goes to attest a continuity in metaphysical thinking from the Rig Vedic times (c. 1500 BC) to the Bakti period ( c. 7th.cent) . I want also to point out the Rig Vedic sloka is also a form of Archaic Tamil and hence it may be possible that in the distant past the Vedas were not considered alien but rather a text from the deep past of the Tamils themselves. This also shows that such notions of Sanskritization , Aryanization of Dravidian culture and so forth are inapplicable. Rig Veda is as much Dravidian as SumeroTamil CaGkam Tamil and so forth.


On top of that there are many phrases here that are Compound Words that show the language to be AGGLUTINATIVE just as SumeroTamil and Dravidian lnaguges.



The Verse of Appar


While I can cite many verses relevant to the theme, I shall confine myself to the following one that directly relates to the theme:


Appar 5:90- 10





ViRakil tiiyinan paalil padu ney poola

MaRaiya ninRuLan maamaNic cootiyaan

UNarvu kool naddu uNarvu kayiRrinaal

MuRuka vaangkik kadaiay mun niRkumee



விறகில் தீயினன் பாலில் படுநெய்போல

மறைய நின்றுளன் மாமணி சோதியான்

உறவு கோல் நட்டு உணர்வு கயிற்றினால்

முறுக வாங்கிக் கடைய முன் நிற்குமே



Meaning:


BEING, though crystal clear Brilliant Light but stands hidden and concealed like the Fire in the wood and Ghee in the milk. But if you churn and grind with planting the staff of Love unto All and with the rope of such sentiments exhaustively then BEING will appear in front of you ( for you to witness Him directly)


It appears to me that while the NEW elements are that of Bakti but the metaphor used to disclose the presence of BEING as CONCEALED reality in everything phenomenal is also available in the following Rig Vedic Sloka


This same metaphor occurs in the following sloka VII:1


Agnim n~aro di~dhitibhir araNyor ha~stacyutii janayanta prasastam/

duuredrisam grihaspatim atharyum//


Swami Satya Prakash Saraswati et al, give the meaning as follows:


As fire priests with fingers produce fire from two sticks by the motion of their hands, in the same way with the co-ordinated efforts of their deep thinking and noble actions, wise men manifest an extend the glory of effulgent lord, who is excellent, and to be realized at depths with subtle eyes, ever vigilant sovereign Lord of creation


This can be reconstructed as (tentatively):


Agnim narar tii.ti.ti.bhir araNyor hasta.cii.uti janiyantu parasastam/

tuura.tarisanam karikaas.patim antaryum


and the meaning:


Agni! Just like those who are of the habit of bringing out fire (tii.ti.ti.bhir) by rubbing sticks with their hands( araNyor hasta.cii.uti) , let there be men who bring out the light of metaphysical illuminations (janiyantu parasastam) and gain deep and distant visions ( tuura tarisanam) into the Lord of Concealed World (karikas.patim) who is also deep inside all(antaryam)


Here while all the words can be related SumeroTamil and Classical Tamil, I want to concentrate first on tii.ti.ti.bhir where the roots are clearly Tamil and so are the agglutinating processes generating Case Compound Words such as this and which is NOT typical of any European languages like Latin Greek and so forth but only the agglutinating languages like Dravidian Ural-Altaic and so forth.


The roots tii.ti.ti. bhir where ‘tii’ means ‘fire’ ‘ti.ti’ ‘ to let be there ‘ and ‘bhir’ the third person plural marker are clearly evolutes of SumeroTamil.


Su. de and Tamil :tii


Sirbiyam


44. ka-gal-a-be d’e mu-ni-in-dal (The grand entrance you have reduced to ashes)


Ta. kaa.kaLLabbee tii munnin taL ( You have fire in front of the great gates)


Here Su. de > Rig. di~ and Ta. tii but all meaning fire.


Now I have given many instances of ti(l), ti meaning to exist and which occurs in Ta. as ti.ti as in ti.tik kadavuL and Sk as ‘stiti’ ( < si-ti-ti). The following is just one instance.


Sirbiyam


69. ki-si-ga bi-in-gar ga-e nu-mu-un-de ti-le ( (But now) I am placed in the leper’s ward; I even I, can no longer live with you)


Ta. kiiz sikka biiyin kaar Gayee naa mundee tillee ( Now I am already placed in the prison; I , even I, can no longer live in front of you).


The ‘til’ as ‘ti’ is also of wide occurrence. The verbal duplication here ‘ti.ti” is a common phenomenon in Dravidian languages where among the various meanings, that of ‘sustenance’ fits the context well.


Now I have already shown that the plural personal suffix ‘bhir’ that is of wide occurrence in Rigkrit is derived from more archaic form in Sumerian “ba-e-re; and which can itself be derived from ‘ba-e-ne “ i.e. Ta. baa inam - the group of human beings. The ba-e-re exists now s Ta. peer - vantapeer, cenRapeer, padittappeer etc.


Tii.ti.ti.bhir as Case Compound Word


What is fascinating is that such complex words are what are called Tokaic Col ( > Sk. samaajam) and here perhaps a Case Compound Word derived from a Deep Structure such as “tii-ai ti.ti-bhir’ and where the accusative case marker may occur as ‘-ee” and hence ‘tii-yee ti.ti.bhir”.


Another fascinating aspect is that the occurrence of ‘bhir’ as plural third person suffix to a VP and which is peculiar to many Dravidian languages such as Tamil. We see this in SumeroTamil as well.


Naro


Su. ni : person , Ta. nii: You ( second person sigular)


Ni-ere: people , ni-ere> naree> narar: people, human beings


AraNyor


Su. eren : cedar trees. Ta. aran : strong woods? See aran; fortress, araNmanai: palace, a fortified house.


Duuredrisan as Quality Compound Word.


Now duuredrisan as I have already pointed out is a variant of Ta. tuura tarisinam : distant (tuura) vision (tarisanam). Here the agglutination has resulted in deletion of the adjectival formant “-a” and replacing it with ‘-e, -ee” . Such are the grammar of what are called PaNbut Tokai.


What is interesting is that here we see a DIFFERENCE in the order with Sumerian but not with Tamil. The order in Sumerian ‘NP- name-a ‘ as ‘e-gal-la_ etc while in Tamil it is Name-a-NP as in Periya Viidu etc. The Rigkrit registers a CHANGE in the direction of the order in Tamil and hence pointing is proximity with Classical Tamil than Sumerian.


This as well as many other grammatical features show that Rigkrit is considerably LATER than SumeroTamil and NOT perhaps very distant from Classical Tamil.


ha~stacyutii


This is an interesting expression where while ‘sii-uti’ (>cyuti) is definitely Tamil but ‘hasta’ is not. However CJ Gadd gives the Ak. Hasus as meaning ‘to cut” as equivalent to Su. sa ( Ta. saa: to die, to fall etc). Now it is possible for the word for hand to have come from an action effected by it by a process of meaning transfer. We have ‘kar, kaar” to set up etc, giving us the the word ‘karam” meaning the hand or arms, that organ that does the work. Similarly from the Ak. hasus we could have become the Rigkrit hasta.


This goes to show some kind of lexical diffusion from the Akkadian to Rigkrit had existed and hence pointing out the possibly of Sumerian origins of the Rig Vedic Rishies. The occurrence of Suruppak that we have pointed also reinforces this.


Janiyanta :


Su. ji-ni : to bring forth life. ji-ji-I ; to be very alive and active; ji> jiivan, ciivan; jiivi: to live etc. Ji-ni > jani, sani: to give birth to.

The suffix stands to compare with CaGkam Tamil verabsl suffix ‘untu” e.g tuukkuntu : they sing


Prasastam = Parasastam : Paraasakti


Pra= para > Su. bur-re : to reveal, that which reveals. Ta. puru: the sun - that which discloses. Purootayam ( puru-utayam: sunrise)


Sastam : saaktam : powerful , thus parasastam : Ta. paraasakti : the transcendent Power underlying all and which Pure Light. It is also an epithet Inanana : Nin mey sar-ra u dalla-e-a ( lady of all me’s, resplendent light)


grihaspatim atharyum


grihaspatim: karikas-pati-mu


pati : lord as Su.pate-si < governor of nation


grihas= karikas : dark, black , concealed. Cf Ta. kari: black. Ta. karai: to conceal, hide etc.


atharyum = antariam:


anta : the limit. Su. an : sky Ta.aan, vaan : sky. The ‘-ta” is ablative case marker . anta-iri-um : that which stays as the limit, the deepest, the most distant reality.


Thus grihaspatim atharyum: the Lord (Pati) of the concealed world (grihas) and hence the dweller at the deepest level ( anta-iri-um)


Concluding remarks:


While there are differences but there are also striking similarities in the metaphysical understanding of BEING as the hidden reality but who can be SEEN directly by a distant vision just as Fire is made to shine forth from its concealed presence in the wood by rubbing it against another wood. We should note here that the notion of grihaspatim antariyum may have been developed further by the Vaishnavas where BEING as antariyamin is well rooted (as is also in the hymns of Paripaadal )


Tamil as the Base Language of Sanskrit-9

Meykandar is certainly one of the great philosophers of India but unfortunately marginalized by the Bramahmanist Brahmins and Aryan racialists because he was a Tamil and who chose to write in Tamil. He also transformed the whole of metaphysics into the most comprehensive Hermeneutic Science so that every one can enjoy the Njanam that is already there in the bosom of all. Now such a philosopher who chooses not to mention any person or Agamas mentions the Rig Veda but only by way of saying that the Vedantic traditions have misunderstood the essence of the Vedas.

Now I have chosen the following verse where I see a continuity in metaphysical thinking between Rig Veda and Meykandar just like I showed earlier with Appar. This similarity is available in the phrase” upa yanti vajaaH’ which I recover as Ta. upa anti bajiah and which means that BEING is the terminator(anti) and because that the initiator, regenerator ( ba-ji-ah) i.e. Meykandar’s “Antam- aati”. The capture of world processes as essentially destructive-regenerative is that which underlies seeing not only the presence of BEING but also seeing Him as the pancakrityan, the Cause of the five fold Universal Processes.

Now in addition to that we have also many phrases like ‘Preddho agne’ ( Ta. Perutta Agni) “diidihi’ ( Ta. tiiy-ti-hi) which are certainly C.Tamil both in the ROOTS as well as the syntactic rules that govern the generative processes. In ‘Perutta Agni” ( the immense fire?) we have the adjectival form ‘perutta” with the characteristic suffix’-a” that unites C.Tamil with SumeroTamil as I have already pointed out. The ‘tiiy-ti-hi” means the one who brightens the world where ‘tiiy-ttu’ is the ‘cey-tu’ type of Verbal Phrase that is of wide occurrence in C.Tamil.

Loga


The Rig ‘ Upa Yanti VaajaaH’ and Saiva Siddhanta.


The basic metaphysical insights that sustain Saivism to this day seem to have had various kinds of archaic expressions from Sumerian times and which through the intermediary of some verses of Rig Veda, seem to have developed to the present form. One of the metaphysical insights that has remained an INVARIANT across all these historical processes of change and continuity is that of the notion of ‘antam-aati’ that occurs in the first sutra of MeykaNdar:


avan avaL atu enum avai muuvinaimaiyin,

tooRiya titiyee oduGki malattu uLataam,

antamaati enmanaar pulavar. (Civanjana Botham, 12 cent AD)


What it means is that BEING-as-Siva remains the GROUND of the fundamental destruction-regeneration processes of the whole of the universe and because of which He is above all. This notion also means that BEING-as-Siva stands as the CAUSAL GROUND of such processes, that He remains beyond or unaffected by TIME and hence though the ground of everything historical He is NOT part of it, like the Hegelian Spirit that realizes itself in world history. This same notion appears in the Sumerian Gilgames Epic Tablet XII where Enki ( < eeN-sii) i.e. the Lord of Sii or Life is the one who is seen to have the power to resurrect the dead Enkidu and because of the plea of his friend Gilgames. Elsewhere it appears to me that this Ensii(> enki) is also called si-pa, sib and so forth and translated as the ‘ shepeherd, saviour” etc. . Perhaps the word ‘saviour’ itself has gone into English and other European languages from the root ‘si-ba> siva”


It is interesting that this same notion appears in the following sloka of Rig Veda VII:1-3 which incidentally has also many other slokas that are still retained as part of the Saiva Metaphysical Understanding. As I have already pointed out earlier where the metaphor of grinding the wood to create fire was also used by Appar to describe how BEING can be witnessed ( viRakil tiiyinan etc) in the body by grinding it like the grinding the dry wood.


Preddho agne diidihi no ‘jasrayaa suurmya yavistha/


Tvam sasvanta upa yanti vajaaH//


The meaning as given by Swami Satyapprakash Saraswati is as follows:


Well-kindled, ever youthful, the glory of the adorable Lord shines before us, with un-decaying and life-bestowing radiance. To it, proceeds our abundant ever-flowing homage, like viands to sacrificial fire.


The original form of this can be recovered by a process of urittal, as said by Tolkaappiayr, peeling off the superficial layers as follows( tentatively) and where the Tamil character of the verse also emerges.


Perutta agniyee tiiy.ti-hi nii-yee ji-as-rayaa surmiya yav-isthu-a/

Tuvam sa-as-av-anta upa yanti baa-ji-am//


O great agni who spreads everywhere( perutta agne), you are the one who brings real light(fire) to all ( tiiy-ti-hi nii-yee). For the happiness of all creatures( ji-as-rayaa) you shine forth ( suurmiya) in everything (yav-isthu-a). But you are the only reality in the depths of all (tuvam sa-as-anta) and above all (upa) and hence beyond the historical processes of termination (yanti> anti) and regeneration (baa-ji-am)


The obvious closeness in meaning and phonological shape of preddho agne ( perutta agniyee) tiiy-ti-hi ( dii.di.hi) cuurmiya ( surmiya ) show that they do not require very extensive philological comments though it will be given later.


I shall here consider in some detail only the clause “upa yanti baa-jia-aH ‘


Upa Su. ub-a


We note here that ‘upa’ occurs in SumeroTamil as ‘ub, ubar’ etc as in ‘an-ub-da’ ( space above the sky? ) and ‘ubar-tutu” the utterances from above. In Tamil it occurs as “uppu, uppar, umpar’ etc meaning the same. We should also notice that the locative case suffix ‘-a” is common to SumeroTamil and Classical Tamil. It is again another instance of glued words( odduppeyar) - two names the ‘ub/up’ and the deictic or Cuddu “a’ being glued together to generate a new word.


Yanti Su, an-ta and Ta. anti


As already pointed out, in Su. an means the sky and the ‘-ta’ is an ablative case marker and we have the generation of an-ta; to mean the limit, the end etc but literally meaning, at the sky. We have in Siirbiyam : an-ur-as-a > vaan-uur-asya meaning the whole of the earth and sky. To this day even in colloquial use we have ‘anti’ meaning the end, the finish, the termination as in ‘antiveeLai” the evening, the end of the day which is carried also in the phrase ’anti-canti” ( night and day etc)


VajaaH and Baajiia


The word ‘ba, baa” both in SumeroTamil and Classical Tamil means to give, distribute etc ( paattal, paa, paku etc) , The ‘ji’ is of wide occurrence in Su. meaning ‘life’ as a noun and ‘to live’ as a verb. Thus ‘baajii” is giving back life, existence and resurrection.


Now noting that it is the Su. ‘j’ that while retained in Sk but transformed into ‘z’, the retroflex, we can see that vaa-jiaH has become Ta. vaaziyam i.e living or being there as opposed suffering ‘anti’ i.e. destruction or termination.


Thus collectively it means that the Agne that is great and present everywhere etc ( perutta or parutte agniyee) despite being within all etc is also above all (upa) and beyond the historical processes of destruction(yanti) and regeneration ( baajiiaH)


Concluding Remarks


The continuity of a language and its evolution into various branches also involves the study of CULTURAL CONTINUITIES for a language does not exist in isolation of the USE of it for various cultural purposes. In this , it also appears the DEEP Metaphysical Insights that found a culture also get to be retained and RETOLD generation after generation suffering also some changes in the linguistic form such insights assume in the communication of it. The insight also get adumbrated and made more logical etc and which we see in the evolution of Saiva Siddhanta that can be traced from Sumerian times at least.


Tamil as the Base Language of Sanskrit-10

As I pour over the Rig Vedic slokas I frequently come across not only words but also clauses that are certainly C.Tamil. While a more diligent search will uncover more and more of such C.Tamil clauses, I am drawing the attention of the scholars through these posts to what I have discovered so far.

Now I come to the clause ‘yaatumavaan’ which is recovered as C.Tamil ‘yaatum aavaan” just with Sandhi break-up. Here we have the interrogative ‘yaatu” (which) suffixed with the particle of conjunction ‘um” making it a change in meaning to “whatever, all ‘ etc. In this sloka VII 2:5, we have also other interrogative like ‘yam’ ‘yaavaa’ and so forth which can be recovered as Ta. yaam, and yaavai

The common root appears to be Su. a = yaa as in Su. a-ba ( yaaba: who) S., a-na ( enna, yenna: what ) and so forth.


Now we should also note that the ‘um’ in ‘yaatum’ is still retained in C.Tamil though I m not sure whether it is in Sk. However the Ta. um seems to be related Su. u. The more widespread particle of conjunction in Sk is “ca” and these including the Sumerian ‘u’ appears to have the root ‘sum, sam” (to carry, join together etc): sum> Ta. um, kum and sam> Sk ca, caa


Again we note that such words as ‘yaatum’ ‘yam’ ‘yaavaa’ are CLOSER to C.Tamil than even Sumerian indicating that Rigkrit cannot be very far back in time compared to C.Tamil. Such clauses are not isolated and rare occurrences but rather quite numerous scattered all over the Rig Vedci slokas leading us to believe that Rig Vedic slokas must have been originally in C.Tamil and which registered many distortions on the way.


We also should note that in such phrases ‘yam’ and ‘yaavaa’ the have presence of person (uyartiNai) non=person (AQRiNai) distinctions so central for the morphology of C.Tamil as enunciated by Tol.


Loga


Rig “yaatumavaan’ and Ta. yaatum aavaan


It is unfortunate that many Indologists still remain spell-bound with the word Arya and keep on talking of the Aryan Civilization and identify it Vedic Culture and Indus Valley Civilization. The irrationality of the Indian mind in such matters seems to have no bounds. In order to substantiate the Vedic origins of Indian civilization they invent fancy dates for Rig Veda using astronomical fantasies and link it up Harappan culture. They go along very blindly with IE linguists who claim that there are only a handful Dravidian words in the body of Rig Veda where as a matter of fact the whole if Rigkrit is just another variant of SumeroTamil or Archaic Tamil.


Well hoping that the TRUTH will finally triumph I am posting another phrase from Rig Veda VII where the Tamil character of the phrase is quite undeniable and which also goes to show that Rig Veda is NOT as ancient as thought.



This phrase comes from VII 2: 5 and it goes as below:


Da no agne dhiya rayim suviiram svapatyam sahasya prasastam/

Na yam yavaa tarati yaatumavaan //


The meaning is given Swami Satya Prakash as :


O vigorous adorable Lord, grant us in requital of our praise, excellent riches and worthy children, and descendents, and other blessings such that no evil, attempting to assail, may succeed in its efforts.


I recover the Tamil base as follows( tentatively)


Taa ni-u agni tiiya raayim suuviiram sivapaty-am cahasya parasaktam/

Ni-a yaam yaavai taraiti yaatum aavaan//


தா நீ-உ அக்னி தீய ராயும் சூவீரம் சிவபதியம் சகஸ்ய பரசக்தம்

நி-அ யாம் யாவை தரைதி யாதும் ஆவான்//


Meaning:


O Agni you are the giver( Taa niu agni) the brilliant light (tiiya raayum), divine bravery ( suu viiram) , being pure inwardly ( sipaty-am) and you are the worlds lofty powers ( cakasya parasastam). Whatever kind ( ni-a) human beings(yaam) and things (yaavai) that are found in the earth (tarai-ti) you have indeed become all ( yaatumavaan)


The clause “ ni-a yaam yaavai taraiti yaatum aavaan” is close to C.Tamil that is quite intelligible without philological comments.


But the following may link it up with SumTamil but now very distantly, it being closer to C.Tamil


The “na’ (ni-a) can be linked with Sum.Tamil ‘ni(g)a’ meaning something or whatver and where the root is ‘ni’ i.e Ta,. nil, to stand, to emerge and be there. Now ‘na’ by itself in SumTamil means also ‘earth’ , ‘clod of earth’


The ‘yaam’ meaning now ‘we people” ( in the exclusive sense ) seems to mean here simple ‘people’, the human beings” . The yaavai now a interrogative related the noperson objects seems to be related SumTa interrogative a-ba : who?


The tarati is obviously Ta, taraiti : those which exist on the earth or the lands ( tarai : land, earth)


The ‘yaatum’ exists even now and in the same sense as above : See Yaatum uuree yaavarum keeLir ( CaGakam c. 200 BC)


In the same way ‘aavaan’ ( He becomes) is also good Tamil where the word is still in use.


Notice also the very distinction between ‘yaam’ and ‘yaavai’ where there is implicit the distinction between persons( uyartiNai) and non-persons (aQRiNai), a distinction that is fundamental for morphology of Tamil language, a distinction that also exists in SumTamil.


Note: This is only a brief study. In view of its closeness to C,Tamil. I intend to takes the slokas in the Sevent Mandala for more detailed studies.

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Ulagankmy

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