The Philosophical Appar

மரபு விக்கி இருந்து

தாவிச் செல்ல: வழிசெலுத்தல், தேடுக

Philosophical Appar 6:95

Commentary by Dr. K. Loganathan

Perhaps in the whole of India , it is difficult to come across an individual as great as Appar who single handed changed the cultural map of Tamil Nadu and indirectly also the whole of India. He was the architect of the Ahimsa way of battling with the political and religious tyrannies and this more than 1500 years ago. This involvement with sociopolitical processes also made him a revolutionary thinker and who churned out hymns after hymns of outstanding beauties and depth. Unlike the various religious heads with their pomposity and exhibitionism designed to make oneself god-like for the masses, he was one of the most humble and who moved about without seeking to leave behind any marks of his presence ( yaatum cuvadupadaamal).

Appar was earlier than Sambantar and is assigned to 6th-7th cent AD and lived to a ripe old age

I have chosen the following Patikam ( 6: 95 - Tanit Tiruttaandkam) where occurs the phrase “ aadduvittaal aar oruvar aadaataaree” a phrase that is immensely alive to this day, not only among the Saivites but all the Tamils. I hope that with an in-depth study of this Patikam, the enormous wealth of philosophical ideas of the Tamil mind and Tamil Language comes to be better known. Indian philosophical thinking is NOT exhausted by the Vedas Upanishads Bagavath Gita and so forth. The highest reaches of metaphysical insights of the Hindu mind are available only in Tamil and I hope the world comes to know these ideas so that there is a better understanding of what genuine Hinduism is and which is Agamism or Tantrism.

I am helped in this task by the commentary written by Mahavidvan N. AruNaivadiveel Mutaliyaar and published by Tarumai Atheenam (1963)


Philosophical Appar 6:95-1

The Existentialism of Appar

If existentialism means a philosophy that accords an important place for feelings and emotions along with or over and above conceptual knowledge then the Philosophy of Appar in this Patikam is Existentialism of an important kind. It is not an accident that BEING is captured not in terms of attributes or guNas or structural forms and so forth but rather in terms of LOVE - Father Mother and so forth. What is described is BEING, no doubt about it but not simply the Brahman, Pure Radiance of a kind, SaguNa NirguNa and so forth. Such Vedantic descriptions are overlooked and BEING maintained as the emotionally appropriated Father Mother and so forth and this obviously to give prominence to LOVE that exists between people as such.

Appar wants to SEE the whole universe in terms of LOVE and therefore something existentially MEANINGFUL just as the Family is the most meaningful social nexus for anybody. In fact we can see Appar begins with Family Man and then universalizing it articulates the notion of World Family Man and where he SEES BEING as Father Mother and so forth. What this way of progressing in individual development is that of culturing FEELINGS so that LOVE comes to dominate existence and because of which there is no alienating, discriminating people on the basis of birth profession sex nationality and so forth. All such man made barriers break down - the whole world becomes one's little city, the whole of humanity becomes one community and all people become brethren, the cuRRam.

It can be seen that this is a frontal attack on VarNasrama Dharma which took a firm hold in the Tamil country at that time where we gather, from MaNimekalai, that even cemeteries were divided along caste lines.


அப்பன் நீ அம்மை நீ ஐயனும் நீ
அன்புடைய மாமனும் மாமியும் நீ
ஒப்புடைய மாதரும் ஒண்பொருளும் நீ
ஒருகுலமும் சுற்றமும் ஓர் ஊரும் நீ
துய்ப்பனவும் உய்ப்பனவும் தோற்றுவாய் நீ
துணையாய் என் நெஞ்சஞ் துறப்பிப்பாய்நீ
இப்பொன் நீ இம்மணி நீ இம்முத்து நீ
இறைவன் நீ ஏறூர்ந்த செல்வன் நீயே


தனக்கென்று எவ்வடிவும் இல்லாத எம்பெருமானே! என் பொருட்டு கண்டித்து வழிநடத்தும் அப்பனாய், எக்குற்றம் செய்தாலும் அதனை பொருட்படுத்தாது அன்பின் அரவணைக்கும் அம்மையாய், ஞானம் புகட்டி சிவஞானம் வளர்க்கும் ஐயனுமாய் நீ ஆகின்றாய். அத்தோடு வாழ்க்கைத் துணைநலம் நல்கி காமவின்பம் தூய்க்க உதவும் அன்புடைய மாமனும் மாமியுமாகத் தோன்றுகின்றாய். பிணக்குகள் இல்லா வாழ்க்கை மகிழ மனம் ஒத்துவரும் நல்மாதராகவும் அத்தகு வாழ்க்கையை நலமே வாழ உதவும் அறமுறையில் வரும் சிறந்த பொருளாகவும் நீயே விளங்குகின்றாய். இந்த உலகத்து மாந்தர் அனைவரும் ஒரே குலம் என்று நினைக்குமா என் அகத்தே சாதிச் சிந்தனை தோன்றாதும், அனைவரையும் அன்பின் நற்சுற்றமே என்று கருதும் நல் மனத்தையும் அதனால் இந்த பரந்த உலகமே ஓர் ஊர் என்றே சிந்திக்கும் திறத்தையும் அருளியவன் நீயே. அத்தோடு இன்பச் சுவையே தோன்றுமா என்னை மேலே உய்ப்பனவும் அதற்கு ஆதாரமாக அமையும் அனுபவங்களையும் தோற்றிவிக்கும் ஆற்றல் சக்தியும் நீ. இனி பக்குவம் வரும் போது நீயே இவையெல்லாமாகி என் நெஞ்சத்தில் நின்று ஏனையவற்றை இனி வேண்டாமென துறப்பிற்கின்ற சக்தியும் நீ. பெரும் பொருள் என்று மதிக்கத்தக்க பொன் மணி முத்து போன்ற நவரத்தினங்களாகிய அனைத்தும் நீயே. அதனால் நீயே இறைவன் , என்பதொடு எல்லா வீரியங்களையும் ஆட்சி செய்யும் திறத்தின் விடலை வெள்ளேறு ஊரும் செல்வனும் நீயே !


appan nii ammai nii aiyanum nii
anbudaiya maamanum maamiyum nii
oppudaiya maatarum oNporuLum nii
orukulamum cuRRamum oor uurum nii
tuyppanavum uyppanavum tooRuvaay nii
tunaiyaay en nenjcanj tuRappippaay nii
ippon nii immaNi nii immuttu nii
iRaivan nii eeRuurnta celvan niiyee!


O BEING who is above any definite shape of your own! It is for my sake that you have assumed the shape of a Father who controls sternly, a Mother who pours love no matter how evil I am and the great Guru who illuminates me on metaphysical truths! You also become the in-laws who allow me to have a spouse to enable me to enjoy sexual bliss and domestic happiness. You also become the women of agreeable temper and the economic wealth that allows a happy domestic life. Above all these you become the divine power that makes me see the whole of mankind as One with all the people as kiths and kin and with that the whole wide world as my own city. Now you also become the Power that configures the experiences of higher tastes that serve to lift up myself in spiritual development. And when the time comes you assume all these forms and saturating my heart to the full, also enable me to disengage myself from the mundane. You are really all the precious stones gold pearls and so forth. Thus you are the Great God and also really the one who rides the Bull of all virility.


The most important phrase here is “oru kulamum cuRRamum oor uuRum nii' and which echoes ‘Yaatum uuree yaavarunG keeLir ‘' (the whole world is my city and all people are my brethren) of KaNiyan puuGkunRanar (c. 2nd cent. BC) and that of Tirumular “ OnRee kulamum Oruvaneeet teevanum “ (all people are of one community and Being is the same for all) and which expresses the SOCIAL UNIVERSALISM of Saivism proper that cuts across the VarNasrama Dharma and such other caste sentiments that is fostered even by modern Saivites. It is interesting that Appar extols this philosophy as part of EXISTENTIALISM and not simply the arid intellectual and logical epistemological philosophies. Such a philosophy in which one relates to others in society in loving terms is a matter of FEEINGS and hence something that belongs to aesthetics and ethics. Unless a person develops in feelings and emotions such a way of relating oneself with others will not be realized.

But how does one get cultured along these lines and what is the role of BEING in such a culture?

First of all Appar notes that a person must be caught in filial relationships of various kinds so that he respects and honors a father so that there is an inner check against going the wrong way. And further there must be Mother figure to love and cherish no matter what heinous a crime one commits. And following these there must a Guru figure, a sympathetic philosopher so that counseling in the form of illuminating the individual with respect to basic truths is always at hand. BEING becomes all these existential figures to cultivate the bestial mind and which is NATURALLY so because of being infected with the Dark Killing Force and its various phenomenal forms.

But these kinds of relationships are in a way secondary compared to the sexual needs of all and which incorporates within itself the instinct to self propagate. A person must be given a sexual partner to gratify such needs and in connection with this BEING becomes the loving in-laws who allow marriage either with their son or daughter and with that enjoy the expression of these instinctual pressures deep within. But here too there can be problems if the spouse is disagreeable and there is economic poverty. So BEING becomes, at least for the deserving one, an agreeable spouse and sufficient wealth to cater for the practical needs.

It is only with such blessings that a person can grow in that a mental framework where the model of loving family gets transported to the whole of world and hence appropriating it as one's own FAMILY. If the right sort of FAMILY LIFE is not enjoyed such a culturing will fail and with that there will NOT also be such a social philosophy of universal brotherhood and so forth.

But as an intermediate culturing element there must be the tasting of the higher aesthetical - uyppikkum tuyppu - the aesthetic experiences that are UPLIFTING, the divine arts and so forth which dulls the ego and with that catapult the self into higher metaphysical grounds. It is the wealth of metaphysical insights gained by such spiritual sojourn that become the gold pearls precious stones and so forth.

Only now there comes to be TuRRappu and which means here not asceticism or sannyasam but freeing oneself from the phenomenal but only because BEING fills fully all these existential needs. When the self is fully possessed by BEING, there is natural saturation of the spirit and because of which INTEREST in phenomenal matters cease to be powerful motivating forces. The various instinctual pressures are redirected into the self relating itself to BEING and with that towards a severance towards the physical but indulgence with the metaphysical.

Such a person is the Bakta, the one who LOVES BEING and maintains himself in various kinds of loving relationships with BEING and with that lead a spiritual life wholly dominated by LOVE unto all.

Philosophical Appar 6:95-2

The Psychiatric Aspects of Siva Worship

The philosophy Appar outlines in this Patikam is a kind of Existentialism where the feeling of LOVE is made to present as the DOMINANT feature of personality so that all the social discriminations are swept away. But we find this is NOT the case with majority of people who thrive in some kind of animism where all attempts are made singly and collectively to put down another group of people and make sacrificial lambs of them to exult in one's own superiority by that kind of animistic act.

This is the workings of the SICK mind, a mind that lacks in love but cherishes hatred and because of which it suffers. There are evil karmic deposits lodged in the deepest layers of the mind and which make their presence felt as diseases near-death experiences, melancholy miseries mental abnormality severe depressions and so forth. The hatred that one harbors where as a matter of fact one should harbor only LOVE, brings about an existence full of miseries and the only solution is to worship Siva, the Destroyer who can singe to ashes these bad karmas and bless the souls with Inner Purity that would also make the loving kind of individuals and with that also CONFIDENT with one self.

At the root of the animism that makes one put down another and deprive him his rights is an Inferiority Complex - the FEAR that one is NOT good enough to command social respect and prestige naturally. It is this FEAR that drives one to seek such honors forcibly and by the social machinations of making a group DOWN BELOW so that one can feel ABOVE them and
hence somewhat great.

If a person is PURE and with inner purity that would allow him to be in the presence of BEING, he would naturally feel that ‘eLiyoom alloom”, not inferior to any body at all and hence confident in oneself and content with whatever one is.


வெம்ப வருகிற்பதன்று கூற்றம் நம்மேல்
வெய்ய வினைப்பகையும் பைய நையும்
எம்பரிவுந் தீர்ந்தோம் இடுக்கண் இல்லோம்
எங்கெழில் என் ஞாயிறு எளியோம் அல்லோம்
அம்பவளச் செஞ்சடைமேல் ஆறு சூடி
அனலாடி ஆன் அஞ்சும் ஆட்டுகந்த
செம்பவள வண்ணர் செங்குன்ற வண்ணர்
செவ்வான வண்ணர் என் சிந்தையாரே


தான் அயராது ஐந்தொழில் இயற்றுகின்ற பெருந்தகை எனக் காட்டி நிற்கும் சிவபெருமான், அழகிய சிவப்பு வண்ணம் மிக்க செஞ்சடைமேல் அருளின் கங்கையினைச் சூடியும் கையில் அழிப்பின் அனல் ஏந்தியும் ஆன்மாக்கள் அஞ்சும் வகையில் பல்வகையாக உமை அம்மையோடு ஆடியவாறாக என் சிந்தையில் இடங்கொண்டுள்ளார். மேலும் அவர்தம் திருநோக்கு அன்பின் செம்பளவண்ணம். உயிர்களுக்கும் எழுந்து உயர்ந்து செல்லுமா ஊக்குவிக்கும் குன்று போன்ற வடிவும் அதே அன்பின் செம்பவள வண்ணமே. இனி உலகெங்கும் நீக்கமின்றி நிலைத்திருப்பதைக் காட்டும் வானத்தின் வண்ணமும் செவ்வண்ணமே யாகும். இபடிப்பட்டவர் என் அகத்தும் புறத்தும் நிற்கின்ற போது, என்னை வருத்தவரும் கூற்றம் வராதுபோகின்றது என்பதொடு துன்பங்களைத் தரும் வெய்ய தீவினைகளும் படிப்படியாக வெந்து இல்லாதுபோகின்றது. அதனால் என் நோய்கள் தீர்ந்தன, வாழ்க்¨காயில் எவ்வித இடுக்கண்களும் இல்லாது போயிற்று. அகத்தே ஞானசூரியனாக எழுந்து சுடர, உள்ளத்தில் ஓர் அழகும் அதனோடு வரும் தூய்மையும் நின்றாள, பக்குவத்தில் மிக்க உயர்ந்து எளியோம் அல்லோம் யார்க்கும் என்ற உணர்வில் வாழ்கின்றோம் காண்.


vemba variRpatanRu kuuRRam nammeel
veyya vinaippakaiyum paiya naiyum
emparivun tiirntoom idukkaN illoom
enGezil en njaayiRu eLiyoom alloom
ampavaLac cenjcadaimeel aaRu cuudi
anlaadi aan anjcum aaddukanta
cempavaLa vaNNar cegkunRa vaNNar
cevaana vaNNar en cintaiyaaree


BEING-as-Siva stands disclosing Himself as the Agent of five fold universal Praxis by wearing the Ganges on His gold-red flowing hair (showing the regenerative praxis) and holding burning Fire and in one of His hands (showing the destructive praxis) and dancing with Uma, stays in my thought as such. He also appears in loving red hue of the corals (showing that His intentions are noble), as the red hue of the Golden Meru Mountain (showing that he lifts up all towards high excellence), and of the red hue of evening sky (to show that he is present everywhere as such). And because of this, the Death and death-related mental and physical diseases cease to come to me. The unconscious karmic deposits that are the causes of mental depressions and miseries also become ineffective gradually. All the mental stresses disappear and I encounter no obstacles in life. On top of all, He stands as the source of inner purity and beauty as well as the Inner Sun of all deep metaphysical illuminations. Thus lifted in spiritual development I feel that I am not downtrodden and inferior to anyone.


We saw that in this Patikam Appar begins a philosophy where he insists that man only as a FAMILY MAN can rise up to living as World Family Man and in that feel the whole world as his own city and all people his brethren and which we saw a philosophical ideal quite ancient among the Tamils as well as something opposed to the immensely unethical VarNasra Dharma that became quite prominent during Appar's time. This it was also explained as something that comes about because of the transmutation of the subjectivity within the realms of FEELINGS and EMOTIONS and not just in epistemological knowledge.

In this verse he continues this theme detailing now the phenomenology of this subjective transmutations (the noetic dimensions of existence) that brings about such a purity and elegance in the subjectivity of the anmas. BENG stands as the producer-destroyer and hence the Power of all the Universal Praxis, the Pancakirittiyas of which the burning with the Fire and Cooling with Ganges are primordial. On top of that and in order to transmute the self into something elegant beautiful and pure, He appears in different hues of RED and which symbolizes LOVE - Siva fills the psychic depths, the hermeneutic world of human understanding and the whole manifest world itself as RED hued to show that He is every where as the One who promotes PURE LOVE as such. He also appears as the Inner Sun that purifies even the psychic depths of the anmas and driving away everything ugly and devilish, makes it shine forth as something Pure and Beautiful.

Against such blessings and engracing presence of BEING, Appar notes as an individual that he is freed of both mental and physical diseases that can bring about premature death, freed also of the evil karmas lodged in the unconscious layers so that he suffers no more bouts of depression melancholy and so forth. Life as whole also becomes something full of happiness with no obstacles and troubles on the way.

And now above all Appar notes that because of such a subjective transmutations he feels NO INFERIOR (eLiyoom alloom) to any body at all and which statement is slap on the face of VarNasra Dharma that upholds that the dwija status is a matter of birth and only the caste Brahmins can enjoy it.

Anybody at all can ascend in subjective development and become self-confident and psychically Pure and Beautiful provided he allows the grace of BEING work within him where BEING is equally available for all.

Philosophical Appar 6:95-3

The Showing BEING and Seeing Anma

This verse contains in explicit formulation what was already present implicitly in the very activity of temple building and which is as ancient as Hinduism itself. It might have begun with worship of natural objects like trees springs hills and so forth however in due course the concealed spirits were intuited and formal temples were built. The idea is that of gaining VISIONS of deities that are there but normally beyond the reach of senses but available to the mental seeing, the transductive perceptions, the visions of the Third Eye.

Thus we have that the primordial act of consciousness is that of SEEING but something which is possible only because there is a prior showing but which fact may remain concealed from the seer. Thus under normal circumstances a person goes about because of this transcendental concealment that he is the agent and so forth by appropriating the Universal Praxis of BEING and transforming as for self and so forth. This appropriation is a result of the inherent atomicity of the mind and because of which there are ego-actions along the effecting of evils and so forth. The karmic traces that are elicited by such actions are the root cause of the various kinds of problems in life - diseases, pains, miseries and so forth.

But what is solution?

Appar proposes that we are NOT autonomous players, agents of actions and that we are LED to feel that way only because of the Tirobavam, the Transcendental Concealment. Once we realize that we are playing this and that and assuming various roles in life only because BEING plays us thus, then our ego gets shattered and the self becomes not only humble but also egoless. With this begins a life of real joy because BEING overpowers such pure anmas and blesses them profusely with all that will make existence supremely blissful.


ஆட்டுவித்தால் ஆரொருவர் ஆடாதாரே
அடக்குவித்தால் ஆரொருவர் அடங்காதாரே
ஓட்டுவித்தால் ஆரொருவர் ஓடா தாரே
உருகு வித்தால் ஆரொருவர் உருகா தாரே
பாட்டுவித்தால் ஆரொருவர் பாடாதாரே
பணிவித்தால் ஆரொருவர் பணியாதாரே
காட்டுவித்தால் ஆரொருவர் காணாதாரே
காண்பார் ஆர் கண்ணுதாலாய் காட்டாக்காலே


நெற்றியில் ஓர் கண்ணோடு முக்கண்ணனாக உள்ளும் புறமும் அதுதானாக நின்று அனைத்தையும் உள்ளவாக் கண்டு மகிழும் எம்பெருமானே! உள்நின்று பல வேட்கைகளை எழுப்பி பற்பல செய்யுமாறு ஆட்டுவித்தால், ஆர்தான் அதனை மறுத்தும் மீறியும் அவ்வாறு ஆடாதிருக்க முடியும்? இனி செயல்கள் வேண்டாம் என ஊக்கங்களை எல்லாம் உள்ளிழுத்துக் கொண்டு அடக்குவித்தால் ஆர்தான் அடங்காது செயல்பட முடியும்? இனி வாழ்ந்தது போதும் இந்த நைந்து போன உடலைவிட்டு ஓடு என்று ஓச்சினால் யார் தான் இவ்வாறு ஓடாதிருக்க முடியும்? கல்மனத்து அற்பனாய் வாழ்வது பொருந்துவதல்ல நெஞ்சம் நெக்குருக வாழவேண்டும் என்று நீ உருகிவித்தால் அதனை மீறுவார் யாருண்டு? இனி அளவை முறையில் சிந்தித்து முடித்து பின் கடந்து நெஞ்சமெலாம் கனிய பண்னோடு பாடுவதே சிறப்பென நீ பாடவைத்தால், யார்தான் பாடாதிருக்க முடியும்? இனி சிவஞானம் பெருக்கி செருக்கெல்லாம் அழித்து பணிவோடு வாழ் என்று பணித்தால் ஆர் தான் இவ்வாறு பணிவின்றி வாழமுடியும்? அதேப் போன்று இதைக்காண் அதைக்காண் என்று பற்பல அவத்தை நிலைகளில் நீயே காட்டிக் காட்டி ஞானம் புகட்டும் போது, ஆர் ஒருவர் இவற்றையெல்லாம் காணாது போவார்? மேலும் அய்யனே ஞானக்குருட்டினை அழிக்கும் வகையில் இவர்களெல்லாம் செயல்படுவது, நீ காட்டுவதால் அன்றோ? நீயே அருளின் காட்டாக்கால் யார் தான் அரியக் கண்டு ஞானம் பெற்று விளங்குவர்? யாரும் இல்லை என்றவாறு.


aadduvittaal aaroruvar aadaataaree
adakkuvittaal aaroruvar adaGkaataaree
oodduvittaal aaroruvar oodaataaree
urukuvittaal aaroruvar urukaataaree
paadduvittaal aaroruvar paadaataaree
paNivittaal aaroruvar paNiyaataaree
kddavittaal aarouvar kaaNaataaree
kaaNpaar aar kaNNutalaay kaaddaakkaalee


O BEING with an EYE on the forehead! Who can refuse to Play and act if played by you from within? Now if decreed that they withdraw and cease acting, who can refuse that and continue an active life? If you drive them away from the physical body they have been enjoying for so long, who again can efuse to escape thus? If you intent that people should not be hardhearted but soft and gentle with a melting heart with love for all, who can refuse to melt thus? Now if you insist that over and above developing the logical acumen, the aesthetics too must be developed with singing hymns with appropriate melodies and so forth, who can refuse to sing thus? Now if you kill the ego and bring about humility and subservience, who can go against it? Now in order to illuminate the mind if you SHOW this and that, who would remain blind to all these? And above all, if you, out of Pure Love for all, do not venture to SHOW thus who would ever SEE anything at all?


Perhaps of all verses from the Bakti burst, there is nothing comparable to this verse in its profundity and influence. For we have the foundations of Pedagogic Hermeneutics, initially formulated in Tolkaappiyam, being recovered against the onslaughts of Buddhist and Jaina epistemological logic. The most important phrase is that “ kaaNpaar aar KaNNutal kaaddaakkaal? “, who can ever SEE anything at all if NOT SHOWN as such by BEING?

There is SEEING on the part of anmas only because they are SHOWN such and such. Every seeing is there , and in all states of consciousness - caakkiram coppanam and so forth - only because as an apriori there is a SHOWING and by BEING, the Third Eyed and hence someone who sees always and unfailingly. Since seeing is fundamental and whatever is seen thus is a TEXT, there are also interpretive moves by the anmas and which bring about consciousness and understanding. Here too emerges the meaning of TRUTH - whatever shown by BEING if seen exactly how it is shown, then that congruence is given reinforcement in terms of the provision of truth-experience, that anma in having and enjoying that experience is in fact SEEING exactly as SHOWN by BEING. This notion of truth-experience constitutes the foundation of the Hermeneutic Logic, that which is the foundation of Saiva Siddhanta.

Now Appar notes that it is through this device that BEING has complete regulatory power over the CONDUCT of all human beings. Here is the beginning of the Praximatism of Saivism - that it is the Praxis or conduct or actions that count as the most important element of existence. Man must ACT in various ways in order to LEARN and develop understanding and with that also develop as an individual. BEING PLAYS all creatures remaining Himself the concealed or unconscious power behind all and thus leading man think that he is the agent of all his actions, without realizing that he is NOT the true agent but only made to think so by the transcendental CONCEALMENT of BEING. Acting withdrawing becoming soft and compassionate, even willing to accept death, develop aesthetics and with that also feelings and so forth are NOT the doings of the anma but rather that of BEING and all for the redemption of the soul.

Thus it follows that it is only because of a BLINDNESS that we are egoistic and when this is removed by BEING disclosing that He is the real agent of all, not only we become humble but also a Bakta, one who loves BEING for all these blessings are given freely and with love. Our ego is punctured and exploded and this is done by BEING at the appropriate time.

Philosophical Appar 6:95-4

BEING Overpowers on His Own

BEING presents Himself in various TEXTS composed of the languages of Vaikari Paisyanti Mattimai Cukkumai and finally Aticukkumai. Saivism has a hierarchical view of the Logos, the most primordial form is Om, the Ongkaaram but which splits and develops into the other forms as above the most immediate being the Vaikari form, the language of ordinary speech and which can be HEARD and communications established. But BEING draws the understanding from this auditory form of Logos into the more subtle forms where the texts are nonverbal but come as dreams, mythologies, mantra complexes and finally the Logos itself.

Thus it is possible for there to be differences in understanding BEING and conflicts of interpretations and because of which we have different religions ideologies and struggles between them. But everybody realizes that BEING is in fact BEYOND any linguistic determinations and stands nevertheless as the Deepest Structure of all TEXTS, just a background impossible to capture in words (colaRkariya cuuzal) and that all should stand in the contemplation of this so that one can FREE of mental fluctuations uncertainties infirmities doubts and so forth. Thus there is a kind of IGNORANCE which is the root cause of a primordial doubt that produces basic uncertainties and mental infirmities.

But Appar sees that BEING has implanted Himself in the body of all as that remains not only as the absolutely permanent but also as the eternally productive( kaRpagam) principle. The solution to all uncertainties and mental stresses because of that is to search this BEING within and repose by firmly attaching oneself to it. This actually requires the breaking down the inner resistances the ego-self develops and with that FREE the mind for the natural possession of the soul by BEING and which He will do readily.


நற்பதத்தார் நற்பதமே ஞானமூர்த்தி
நலஞ்சுடரே நால்வேதத்து அப்பால் நின்ற
சொற்பதத்தார் சொற்பதமுங் கடந்து நின்ற
சொலற்கரிய சூழலாய் இதுவுன் தன்மை
நிற்பதொத்து நிலையிலா நெஞ்சந் தன்னுள்
நிலாவாத புலாலுடம்பே புகுந்து நின்ற
கற்பகமே யானுன்னை விடுவேன் அல்லேன்
கனகமா மணிநிறத்து எங் கடவுளானே


வீடுபேற்றிற்கு உரியராய் பக்குவத்தில் உயர்ந்து நிற்கின்றவர்கள், அந்த வீடுபேற்றினை நல்குகின்ற அநாதி முத்த சித்துருவாகிய இறைவன், சிவஞானம் நல்கவல்ல மூர்த்தி என்பதொடு அழகின் இனியவையாகிய நலத்தை எல்லாம் தருகின்ற செஞ்சுடருமாகும். அறிவினை தெளிவாக்குகின்ற ஞால்வேதங்களாகிய வைகரி பைசந்தி மத்திமை சூக்குமை என்னும் வாக்குகளாலாகிய மொழிகளையும் கடந்து அதிசூக்குமையாகிய ஓங்காரமே தானாக நிற்கின்றதால், நற்சூழலில் இருக்கின்றான் என்பதைத் தவிர்த்து இத்தன்மையன் இன்ன குணத்தன் திறத்தன் என்றெல்லாம் கிளப்பதற்கு எட்டாதவன். ஐயனே! இதுதான் உன் தன்மை என்று தெளிந்து அதில் உறுதியாக ஒத்து நிற்பதல்லாது என் நெஞ்சம் பலவாறு சிந்தித்து அலைகின்றது. என்னுடைய அத்தகைய உடம்பினில் புகுந்து நின்று பலவாறு கற்பகத் தருவென பலவாறு எனக்கு காட்டிக் காட்டி ஞானம் புகட்டிக்கொண்டே இருக்கும் எம் பெருமானே! பொன்நிறத்தொடு கண்டத்தில் மாமணி நிறத்தில் கருத்திருக்கும் என் கடவுளே! உன்னை நான் யாண்டும் விடுவேன் அல்லேன் கண்டாய்!


naRpatattaar naRpatamee njaanamuurtti
nalanjcudaree naalveetattu appaal ninRa
coRpatattaar coRpatamuG kadantu ninRa
colaRkariya cuuzalaay ituvun tanmai
niRpatottu nilaiyilaa nenjsan tannuL
nilaavaata pulaaludambee pukuntu ninRa
kaRapakamee yaanunnai viduveen alleen
kanakamaa maNi niRattu eG kadavuLaanee!


O You who stand as the liberator of those who are fit for final liberation and on account of that Icon of Civanjanam itself! You also stand as the One shining aesthetically the best! O you who stand above the four scriptures of the languages of Vaikari Paicyanti Mattimai and Cuukkumai and the Logos itself surrounding all and beyond the words of even the gifted! I fail to be one with firm mind and because of that my heart is restless searching for this and that. My physical body too is transient but you entered it and stand as the KaRpakat Taru, the ever-yielding Tree providing me with so many things to illuminate me. O You who is both gold and intense black (at the throat), I will never leave you at all and no matter what!


Having noted that no one can SEE anything at all unless SHOWN as such by BEING and because of which BEING plays all the anmas in a way they cannot dodge and avoid, Appar now brings a personal note that is also typical of genuine Bakti that is immensely PERSONAL and where a dialogic discourse within an I-Thou relationship is developed. Appar declares quite emphatically that he will not ever abandon being-with BEING (yaan unnai viduveen alleen) and for many good reasons.

The primary reason is that BING-as-Siva is ‘naRpatattaar naRpatam' an enigmatic phrase but with a profundity of its own. BEING stands as an exemplar of the State of Liberation for those already seeking this liberation. This again is a UNIVETRSAL feature of all anmas and NOT something true of only the so-called Brahmanahs who are by birth alone dwijas. Such an immensely discriminatory notion is never condoned in Saivism and most of all by Appar the most brilliant and bold champion of this ancient universalism of the Agamic culture. The NaRpatam is a state of being-in-the-World and which is the most desirable state of being, equally available to ALL whatever their birth and profession.

It is understanding BEING within this state that He is apprehended not as a simple ICON but a Njana Muurtti, an Icon (Muurtti) of the liberating Civanjanam. The icon presentations of BEING are there not just for worship but also as a TEXT which embody within itself deep metaphysical messages that one can understand provided one takes the trouble to INTERPRETE scientifically, relate the message to the natural events and understand NATURE itself. It is in this context that we see the Four Vedas, the illuminating metaphysical texts as composed by the languages of Vaikari et al and finally BEING just as LOGOS and hence above all languages. No language can contain BEING , He showing Himself always a SURPLUS and overflowing reality of any linguistic determinations - a surrounding LIGHT (cuuzalaay) who does not allow imprisoning within any language at all.

But despite all these BEING presents Himself as everywhere, the carva viyaabi, and thus also in the frail human body that is subject to growth and decay and as the cause of such processes and which is communicated by the body colors of burning fire and cooling dark, the NilakaNdan or alternatively the Red Siva along with the Black Tirumaal.

Appar notes that the fragile human mind cannot normally appreciate all these and stand firm with that understanding and because of which it wavers jumping hither and thither. Unless it holds BEING as such firmly in the mind and with intense LOVE, the psychological stability is not attainable. Thus genuine Bakti is immensely stabilizing by providing a firm anchor for the mind.

Philosophical Appar 6:95-5

The Philosophy of Temple City

The most unifying theme of Agamic Culture is that of the centrality of Temple in every city and residential locality , a fact we notice in Sumeria and Indus in ancient times and since then all over India and the world where Hinduism has planted itself. Each time a temple is erected, Agamic Hinduism comes alive making that locality itself sacred, brining along with the celestial powers to guide them along

We have Kes Temple Hymn of En Hudu Anna outlining the philosophy of where it is stated that it contributes to mental health of the people and through that even for economic prosperity. It allows or helps people become great , the ur-sag (> caanRoor) who would reach the heavens with the help of the temple.

In this very useful verse, Appar returns to this theme but more in the psychiatric vein. He outlines a Philosophy of Temple city where there will be huge temples with many festivals but also little shrines everywhere so that all people have READY access to the divine forces.

One puzzling element is the repeated emphasize of Appar worship with flowers that he also mentions and as usual just before having meals. It appears this linkage between flower worship and having meals may be a recommendations of Vegetarian Food, as not the clean food ( Cutta Pooasnam) but also as that which overcomes animistic tendencies, the inclinations to sacrifice animals and as by way of worship.

This is either the birth or reinforcement of vegetarianism in the temples, the great one as opposed to the little ones, the temples for the little deities with the attendant magical practices and blood sacrifices. I tend to think it is resuscitation of an ancient practice for we have also Suruppak saying in his NeRi ( c. 3000 BC) that such forms evil and will bring about undesirable consequences.

The metaphor of woods thick with luxuriant growth is also quite apt and it's a dream image. The luxuriant undergrowth represents uncontrollable desires and any society creates a city without temples which serve as the culturing agents will turnout to be such a one.


திருக்கோயில் இல்லாத திருவில் ஊரும்
திருவெண்ணீறு அணியாத திருவில் ஊரும்
பருக்கோடி பத்திமையாற் பாடா வூரும்
பாங்கினோடு பலதளிகள் இல்லா வூரும்
விருப்போடு வெண்சங்கம் ஊதா வூரும்
விதானமும் வெண்கொடியும் இல்லா வூரும்
அருப்போடு மலர்பறித்திட்டு உண்ணா வூரும்
அவையெல்லாம் ஊரல்ல அடவி காடே


இறைவனது பல மூர்த்தங்களை முறைப்படி பிரதிட்டை செய்து வழிபாடுகள் சிறப்பாக நடக்கின்ற திருக்கோயில்கள் இல்லா அதனால் இறையருள் விளங்கா ஊரும், நின்மலனாகிய சிவபெருமானை வணங்கி அகத்சுத்தமே வேண்டப்படுவது என்ற நோக்கில் நெற்றியில் திருநீறு அணியாத மக்கள் வாழ்கின்ற திருவில்லாத ஊரும்; நெஞ்சத்திலே எல்லா உயிர்கள் மேலும் பரிவினை வளர்த்து நெஞ்சம் நெக்குருக உடம்பினை வளைத்து மெய்யான பத்தியே உளம் நிற்ப பாசுரங்களை வாய்மணக்க பாடா மக்கள் நிறைந்த ஊரும்; தக்க முறைப்படி எழுப்பப்பட்ட சிறுகோயில்கள் தெருத்தெருவாய் இல்லா ஊரூம்; விரும்பி மனக் கலக்கம் உடையோருக்கு வெண்சங்கு ஊதுவது சான்ற உபதேசங்கள் பெரியோரால் நலமே வழங்கா ஊரும்; அடிக்கடி மக்கள் உள்ளத்தை உற்சாகப்படுத்துமா விதானம் எழுப்பி வெண்கொடிக் கட்டி கோலாகல திருவிழாக்கள் கொண்டாடா ஊரும்; மலரா அரும்புகளோடு கூடிய அன்றே மலர்ந்த மலர்கள் பறித்து இறைவனுக்கு இட்டு வணங்கிய பின்னரே உண்ணும் பழக்கமில்லா ஊரும் இன்னும் இவையெல்லாம் ஊரே அல்ல மற்று விலங்குகள் வாழும் செடிகொடிகள் அடர்ந்தக் காடே யாகும்.


tirukooyil illaata tirvil uurum
tiruveNNiiRu aNiyaata tirvil uurum
parkkoodu pattimaiyaaR paadaa vuurum
paaGkinoodu palataLikaL illaa vuurum
viruppoodu veNcaGkam uutaa vuurum
vitaanamum veNkodiyum illaa vuurum
aruppoodu malarpaRittiddu uNNaa uurum
avaiyelaam uurallaa adavi kaadee


The cities that do not have temples with well consecrated icons and hence without the divine Grace; cities that do not have people wearing the Sacred Ash indicating the desire to be Pure in heart and soul; the cities where there are people who are not humble and with genuine Love for BEING do not sing the hymns that melt the heart; the cities where in every street corner there are no simple shrines for people to worship the deities readily; the cities where there are no spiritual individuals who would counsel and with that relieve the confusions or people around; the cities where there are no festivals celebrated with banners and flags raised to create an atmosphere of mirth and joy; the cities where there people who do not worship the icons with fresh flowers before they eat anything at all - all these cities are NOT genuine cities but simply woods with thick wild growths


Right from very ancient days Hinduism, the genuine shape of which is Agamism or Tantrism has been a temple-centered culture as we can see now from SumeroTamil literature such as that En Hudu Anna's Sirbiyam, Kes temple Hymn and so forth. This was the case in CaGkam epoch as well where we have a collection of hymns, the Paripaadal and which presuppose icons and worshipping such icons in temples. Appar is trying to recover this Agamic notion of temple-centered cities as the TRUE cities and all else simply woods with thick wild growths and hence not conducive at all for the culturing of man. This Dravidian notion of culture i.e. naakariikam is also temple centered as the word ‘nakar' , the city also means a temple.

He also emphasizes the wearing of sacred ash as an important element of culture for it establishes the whole motivational dynamics of the people - that of becoming and being PURE at heart for the general well being of all. Where there is no such desire, people will cheat, will be corrupted, become selfish, mean, miserly, nasty an so forth and hence the whole society would lack in cohesion, lack in mutual trust and hence also cooperative activities, the ingredient of economic and all other kinds of successes.

For the psychological well being there must be not only the and magnificent temples but also simple shrines (taLikaL) at every street corners so that the vision of icons are readily available for all. Everyone should live with the presence of BEING in some icon form in the heart and mind of people so that they are free of depressions, melancholies and so forth and which are impediments towards energetic and persistent actions which alone will bring about success.

Now along with this, people should be humble and LOVING unto all to be cultured and truly spiritual so that the deities remain actively present in their body and mind guiding them effectively. For this people must sing HYMNS born out from genuine bakti and which would in turn channel the mind in that direction.

Now I am interpreting the blowing of conch as symbolic of Giitopateesam and hence philosophic counseling by people who are spiritually well developed. There must an abundance of such AntaNar or NaRpatattaar, the truly liberated (and not the charlatans and casteic Brahmins and so forth) who would counsel the distressed people without any ulterior motives (like extracting money, converting to one's own religion, making them slaves unto one self etc)

Now festivals have an important place in the social life of people. Such festivals bring out the Social Dimensions of Existence in addition to serving people to relate themselves with the deities and with that also enjoy a spiritual regeneration that would serve better to lead another spree of active economic and domestic life.

Now the habit of worshipping the deities with flowers before one begins to eat also has immense significance. The eating is the most fundamental earthly activity related to survival and the food has to be CLEAN, not stolen begged and so forth but rather a product of one's own toil. The offering of flowers indicate also the dominance of the spirit of LOVE and hence this habit may also mean that food on consumes must also be CLEAN, a product of LOVE as a whole.

Now all cities but which do not have the above features are said to be simply large woods with thick wild growths in a metaphorical way to indicate that they would FAIL to CULTURE people.

Philosophical Appar 6:95-6

The Mantra Recital and Temple Worship

We have seen that Icon Thinking is the central element of Hindu worship and for which purpose temples are built and where even Appar recommends not only the building of huge temples but also little shrines so that everyone can enjoy the presence of the gods of their choice very readily. Now at the higher levels where Icon Thinking collapses, we have the birth of Mantra Recital and which for the Saivites is Na-ma-si-vaa-ya, the anjcezuttu. For the VaishNavas it remains “namo naraayaNa' and for the Muruka baktas “Om SaravaNa Bava” and so forth. But despite all these differences, all converge on Om, the Ongkaaram, the Primordial Logos and after which only Deep Silence is possible. The Siddhas have recommended even this practice of Deep Silence as an effective tool of psychotherapy for gaining mental purity and so forth.

But Appar also recommends the TALK of fire-hued Siva and the wearing of the sacred ash as associated practices to make the mantra recital effective. The mind must be FILLED with divine thoughts along with the desire to be absolutely PURE and the fact that Siva is the DESTROYER who would access even the deepest recesses of the mind and singe to ashes the evil karmic deposits there.

Life becomes meaningless and mechanical once a person abandons such motivations for existence - life is given to one to become PURE and getting rid off the deposits of the evil actions one has done, knowingly or unknowingly


திருநாமம் அஞ்செழுத்து செப்பாராகில்
தீவண்ணர் திறமொருகால் பேசாராகில்
ஒருகாலுந் திருக்கோயில் சூழாராகில்
உண்பதன்முன் மலர்பறித்திட்டு உண்ணாராகில்
அருநோய்கள் கெட வெண்ணீறு அணியாராகில்
அளியற்றார் பிறந்தவாறு ஏதோவென்னில்
பெருநோய்கள் மிக நலியப் பெயர்த்துஞ் செத்துப்
பிறப்பதற்கே தொழிலாகி இறக்கின்றாரே


நெஞ்சில் புனிதமே ஓம்பத் தரும் ‘சிவ சிவ” என்று இறைவனின் திருநாமத்தையும், அவனே பஞ்சகிருத்தியனாக நின்று அனைத்தும் செய்கின்றான் என்று உணரத்தரும் ‘நமசிவாய' என்னும் பஞ்சாக்கர மந்திரத்தை தூலமாகவும் சூக்குமமாகவும் அனுதினமும் செப்பி மந்திர வழிபாடு செய்யாராகில்; அழுக்குகளையும் அசுத்தங்களையும் அழிக்க எழும் சங்கார மூர்த்தியேத் தான் என்று உணர்த்தும் அந்த தீவண்ணத்து சிவபெருமானை அவனது திறனெல்லாம் விளங்கும்படி உரையாடி மகிழாராகில்; இனி நாத்திகம் தலைப்பட்டு இறைவன் இல்லை ஆகவே திருக்கோயில் செல்வதும் ஆங்கெழுந்து நிற்கின்ற இறைவனை வணங்குவதும் வேண்டப்படாதது என்ற அறியாமையில், திருக்கோயில் பக்கமே செல்லாராகில்; உள்ளத்தில் யாண்டும் அழகும் அன்பும் இன்பமுமே சூழவேண்டும் என்னும் நோக்கத்தினைத் தேற்ற உதவும் மலர்வழிபாடு செய்தே உண்ண வேண்டும் என்ற நற்பழக்கம் இல்லாதாராகில்; உள்ளத்து நோய்களே உடல் நோய்களுக்கும் மூலம் என்றும், அகச்சுத்தமே அனைத்திற்கும் நன்மருந்து என்றும் உணர்ந்து அதன் காரணமாக நெற்றியில் தூய வெண்ணீறு அணியாராகில் - இவர்களெல்லாம் இறைவனது அருளை இழப்பர் காண். இனி இவ்வாறிருக்க எற்றுக்கு இவர்கள் பிறக்கின்றார்கள் வாழ்கின்றார்கள் எனில், செய்கின்ற பாவங்களின் பயனாய் பெருநோய்கள் உற்று பல இன்னல்கள் இடர்கள் இடுக்கண்கள் அனுபவித்து நலிந்து ஏதோ வாழ்ந்து இறந்து பின் மீண்டும் பிறந்து இந்த பாவ கர்மங்களை தீர்ப்பதே தொழிலாகி தொடர்வதற்குத்தான் என அறிக.


Tirunaamam anjcezuttu ceppaaraakil
TiivaNNar tiRamorukaal peecaaraakil
Orukaalun tirukkooyil cuuzaaraakil
UNpatanmun malarpaRittiddu uNNaaraakil
ArunooykaL keda veNNiiRu aNiyaaraakil
ALiyaRRaar piRantavaaRu eetoovennil
PerunooykaL mika naliyap peyarttunj cettup
PiRappataRkee tozilaaki iRakkinRaaree


Those who do not chant the name “Siva! Siva! and the mantra ‘Namasivaaya' indicative of the Panjcakrittiyas of BEING both loudly and softly; those who do not reflect and speak often the DSTRUCTIVE powers of BEING by beholding the Fire-Colored Siva; those who championing Atheism and thus not believing in the existence of gods do not go the temples and worship the deities there; those who not do the arccanas with fresh blossoms before having meals; those who do not wear the Sacred Ash on their forehead in order to secure inner purity and with that drive away all the mental and physical diseases - all these people become unfit for the blessings of BEING. Now if asked why they are allowed to exist at all, know that it is for them to suffer with diseases difficult to cure and thereby immensely suffer by way of extirpating the evil karmas they have acquired and thus simply live to die and to be reborn to continue such miseries till they become pure.


Saivism is a very rational religion that focuses upon man becoming PURE psychologically so that he can lead a life in good mental and physical health and because he becomes fit thereby for the endless Grace of BEING. Living in the vicinity - the Cannitaanam of BEING - is the safest thing one can do to secure all the protection one needs to safeguard self and body from the attack of the evil forces that bring about diseases and death. Thus religious life is NOT simple a life of vain study of scriptures and verbal profession of dogmas and so forth. It is living with a will to be PURE at heart and with that mindful of every action of oneself so that they do not deviate from this inner purity.

Now Appar enumerates a number of overt behaviors that are indicative of such a disposition and all centering on temples and icon related thinking and rituals.

He mentions first of all the Mantra Recital - that of the name ‘Siva Siva' and the root Siva-mantra Namasivaaya (just like Tirumular) which one can do anytime anywhere. The Mantra Recital follows after the collapse of Icon Thinking which is more concrete and which enable an individual to apprehend BEING as Panjca Krittyan Njana Muurtti and so forth.

Now central to BEING-as-Pancjakrittiyan, the Agent of the Five Fold Universal Praxis is that of Destruction and which is symbolized by the Fire-Colored Shape He assumes, Siva as Kaalagni Rudra. One must continually contemplate upon the presence of DESTRUCTION everywhere and hence Rudra for only then the associated praxis of regeneration sustenance and so forth will become intelligible. One must wage a war with evils within oneself and with Grace of Rudra-Siva destroy all these so that on can become PURE.

Now this is related to the symbolic act of wearing the Sacred Ash on the body and which symbolizes the act of destruction and as its limit becoming absolutely PURE. To become PURE in and out is the primordial MEANING of existence and must live as for this. And this brings in the need to avoid animal sacrifices and replace it worship with fresh blossoms. This way of worship indicates a transmutation of self so that it expresses LOVE unto all and not at all animosity and an Inner Purity within the aesthetics of Beautiful.

This inner PURITY and dominance of LOVE ensures the flow of Divine Grace, the aruL so that because of the divine presence all evil forces are naturally driven away making existence itself a joyous one lived with good mental and physical health.

Now the question arises: How is that there is also the gift of existence for those who do not live thus and thus become beyond the grace of BEING?

Such people are also given a lease of existence but not to enjoy the bliss of divine presence but rather SUFFER by way of extirpating the evil karmas already lodged in the deeper recesses of their Unconscious. They assail the person as incurable mental and physical diseases and bring about premature death and so forth by way of allowing the evil karmas express themselves out and with that also disappear.

Philosophical Appar 6:95-7

Assimilating Self into the Image Worshiped

The psychic entity is peculiar in that it can transform itself into the IMAGE that it worships intensively and with love. This Appar mentions and interestingly enough in connection with the Vedic way of life. It is interesting to investigate further whether this is the purport of the Yajna that was emphasized in the Vedic tradition. However it is clear it applies to Icon Thinking that is the central intellectual culture of the Temples where divine images in the form of icons are installed and worshipped. There is a magical or alchemical processes at work where because of intense love and continuous thought of Siva, the psychic entity becomes transmuted into the image of Siva Himself.

But why is this important in connection with the general theme of this Patikam , that of becoming free of the evil karmic deposits that are sources of all problems and miseries in life?

The presence of divine powers within the psychic interior will naturally dislodge and drive away the evil powers, the ghosts demons and so forth. So temple and worship of icon with deep love, will serve to INSTALL them within the psychic interiority and with that drive away the evil powers and make the soul really pure.

The divine images have endearing aesthetic qualities about them and if not have elements of POWERS that would battle with the evil spirits. Thus installing them and making the body itself a kind of temple is really a very effective Sadhana for overcoming the ills of life.


நின்னாவார் பிறரின்றி நீயே யானாய்
நினைப்பார்கள் மனத்துக்கோர் வித்துமானாய்
மன்னானாய் மன்னவர்க்கோர் அமுதமானாய்
மறை நாங்குமானாய் ஆறங்கமானாய்
பொன்னானாய் மணியானாய் போகமானாய்
பூமிமேல் புகழ்தக்க பொருளே உன்னை
என்னானாய் என்னானாய் என்னின் அல்லால்
ஏழையேன் என் சொல்லி ஏத்துவனே


ஐயனே! உனக்கே ஆளாகி உன்வழியே பிழையின்றி செல்வார்களை விரும்பி ஆட்கொண்டு, அவர்கள் பிற இயல்புகளைப் பெறாது நீயே அவர்கள் ஆகி சிவத்துவம் மகிழச் செய்கின்றாய். இனி உன் திருவுருவங்களின் வழி நீ உணர்த்தும் ஆழுண்மைகளை புரிந்துகொள்ளுமா ஆழ நினைப்பார்கள் மனத்துக்கு ஞானவிளைச்சல்களை தருகின்ற வித்துக்களும் ஆனாய். மக்கள் நல்வழி நடாத்திச் செல்லும் தலைவனும் ஆகியதோடு இத்த்கையோர் வீரப்புருடர்களாக திகழ்வதற்கு சோமபானம் புகட்டும் சோமசுந்தரனுமானாய். ஞானவிளக்கம் பெறும் பொருட்டு வேள்வி ஓம்பும் முறையை பரிந்துரைக்கும் நாங்கு வேதங்களும் அவற்றொடு வருகின்ற ஆறு கலைகளும் ஆனாய். உலகத்தில் மக்கள் நலமே மகிழ்ந்திருக்க பொன்னானாய் மணியானாய் நற் போகங்களும் ஆனாய். ஆக அப்பாலுக்கு அப்பால் அகன்றிருந்தாலும் இப்பரந்தப் பாராகவும் அதில் விளங்கும அனைத்துமாகவும் நிற்பதோடு எல்லாராலும் போற்றிப் புகழத்தக்க பொருளாயும் நிற்கின்ற ஐயனே! எது ஆனாய் எது ஆனாய் என்று வியந்து வியந்து ஓதுவதல்லால், இந்தச் சிந்தனை ஏழை, உன்னை வேறு எதைச் சொல்லி ஏத்துவது என்று அறியாது திகைக்கின்றேன் காண்!


ninaavaar piRarinRi niiyee yaanaay
ninaippaarkaL maanttukkoor vittumaanaay
mannaanaay mannavarkoor mutamaanaay
maRai naaGkumaanaay aaRaGkamaanaay
ponnaanaay maNiyaanaay pookamaanaay
puumimeel pukaztakka poruLee unnai
ennaanaay ennaanaay ennin allaal
eezaiyeen en colli vaazttuvanee!


O Lord! You possess and transmute the personality of those who love you and serve you ardently into your own image so that they do not become something else! You also become the seed forms that blossom into deep metaphysical illuminations for those who meditate upon you fervently. You have also become the world leaders and the Soma juice that serves as the ambrosia of immense strength for such warriors. You have also become the Four Vedas and the six associated disciplines by way of fostering the worship of Fire. You have become the gold, the precious stones and all the good and enjoyable experiences in the world. In fact tearing yourself away from being totally ABOVE all, you have become the world and everything praiseworthy there. As such there is nothing left for my poor self to mention and praise You except to be bewildered saying that you have become this! You have become that! And so forth.


We have one of the most precious concepts occurring here and which underlies the very meaning of worship- ninnaavaar piRarinRi niiyee yaanaay - you become those who worship you intensively You Yourself. Here is the science of self-transmutation, the spiritual alchemy where through intense worship love and service to Siva, the anmas also get transmuted alchemically so that their personality gets transformed into that of Siva Himself, a projection of BEING as if for the anmas. The act of worship is to allow self- destruction so that the ego-self is destroyed and the Siva-self gets installed.

And it is towards such a magical possession and alchemical transmutation that BEING presents Himself as the seed of so many thought forms for those who meditate deeply and intensively on Him. Here it is the various icons that are mentioned as seeds for it is through such icons, manifest or concealed, that deep reflections are stimulated.

Now such a task requires great bravery for such contemplations are a WAR against the blinding and demonic forces within and the anma has to be a brave warrior, the mannan (mun> man), he who stands in front as the foremost, the leader who guides the people towards the WAY. Now such leaders, who are also brave warriors, will also require immense KuNdalini Sakti to sustain their warring life and for which Siva as Somasundaran feeds them with Soma juice and which may actually be sexual enjoyment with young women or some other such mechanisms.

Now it appears that this is how Appar incorporates the whole of Vedic culture with its Yajna, Soma Juice and the various sciences associated with the proper understanding of the Vedas.

The next line indicates that the enjoyment of earthly life and which may be related to the Vedic Culture, is not to be abhorred but rather to be enjoyed to the full as a blessing of BEING. The premature ascetic way of life as promoted by Buddhism and Jainism, is a misadventure if it means shunning the worldly life before all the passions are satiated.

BEING becomes all - the so many physical things and metaphysical icons and all to illuminate the self and transmute its being into that of Himself, to make them all enjoy the Sivattuvam and thus enjoy Viidu PeeRu, the final redemption.

Philosophical Appar 6:95-8

Washing off the Sins and the Real Conversion

The Bakti revolt of Nayanmars and Azwars brought back the understanding that BEING is Most Loving and not simply the emotionally indifferent Brahman or simply the Sunyata, a Void. BEING is all LOVING and for those who discard THINKING and approach with LOVE, He is most readily available (eLiyai) though otherwise extremely difficult to encounter (ariyai)

Appar, consistent with his Existentialism emphasizes this aspect of spiritual life in this verse to show that only by developing the aesthetic dimensions of the mind where FEELINGS and EMOTIONS are purified of their inherent animism that a CURE for the various mental and physical ailments are possible. We must also recall here that it was a disease where he suffered unbearable pains in his intestines that brought Appar from Jainism back to Saivism.

There is mention here also the metaphor of cleansing by bathing in the pure and divine waters, a ritual practice that we find in all religions. The real baptism is cleansing oneself of all the filth that is already in the deeper recesses of the mind and which are the deposits of the evil actions one has done. And this baptism as self-purification is a continuous process and which requires going to the temples and worshiping the deities there repeatedly. BEING will bear all the sins and accept any soul no matter how mean and low it is provided it repents genuinely.

Genuine conversion is not jumping from one religion to another but an inner process which is also a continuous one. It is essentially ascending into higher and higher states of inner purity and which can be achieved only by cleansing the inner self of the animism lodged there so that one emerges more and more humane.

Baptisms and conversions must humanize the soul by getting rid of the animism already there.


அத்தாவுன் அடியேனை அன்பால் ஆர்த்தாய்
அருள்நோக்கில் தீர்த்த நீர் ஆட்டிக்கொண்டாய்
எத்தனையும் அரியை நீ எளியை யானாய்
எனையாண்டு கொண்டிரங்கி யேன்று கொண்டாய்
பித்தனேன் பேதையேன் பேயேன் நாயேன்
பிழைத்தனகள் அத்தனையும் பொறுத்தாயன்றே
இத்தனையும் எம்பரமோ ஐய ஐயோ
எம்பெருமான் திருக்கருணை யிருந்தவாறே


எந்தவொரு உணர்வுமில்லாத தூயபரமாக இருப்பதுபோக்கி, என் அத்தனாக அன்பின் பேருருவாகத் தோன்றி அடியேனை அன்பினாலே ஆர்த்து, நிறைத்து ஆட்கொண்டாய். மேலும் அருள் நோக்குத் தேற்றி என் அகம் படிந்துள்ள குற்றங்களை எல்லாம் கழுவி சுத்தம் செய்யும் பொருட்டு கங்கை நீர் கொண்டு குளிப்பாட்டினாய். எத்தனையோ தவங்கள் செய்தாலும் காண்பதற்கும் அனுபவிப்பதற்கும் அரியையாகிய நீ, என் மேல் பரிவு கொண்டு எனக்கு எளியை ஆனாய் என்பதொடு என்னைத் தானாக்கி ஆண்டுகொண்டு என்னையும் உன் அடியார்களில் ஒருவனாக ஏற்றுக்கொண்டாய். நான் கொள்கை உறுதியில்லா பித்தன், சிவஞானம் யாதென்று அறியாத பேதை, பல தீய சக்திகள் உள்ளத்தில் நடமாடத் தரும் பேயேன், இதுவேண்டும் அதுவேண்டும் என்று நிலைகொள்ளாது தெருவெல்லாம் தேடித் திரியும் நாயேன். ஆயினும் இவ்வாறு ஒவ்வாத பல செய்து பிழைவழி சென்றாலும் அத்தனையுயும் பொறுத்து எனக்கு அருள்பாலித்ததை நினைத்து நினைத்து, ஐயகோ உன் அளப்பரும் பெருங்கருணை செயல்படுமாற்றைக் கண்டு கண்டு வியக்கின்றேன் காண்.


attaavun adiyeenai anpaal aarttaay
aruLnookkil tiirttal niir aaddikkoNdaay
ettanaiyum ariyai nii eLiyai yaanaay
enaiyaandu koNdiraGki yeenru koNdaay
pittaneen peetaiyeen peeyeen naayeen
pizaittanakaL attanaiyum poRuttaayanRee
ittanaiyum emparamoo aiya aiyoo
emperumaan tirukkaruNai yiruntavaaRee


Instead of being a neutral and feelingless Pure Spirit, you showed yourself as my Father and showering and filing me with LOVE have overpowered me. You have also with a look of abundant LOVE, washed away my sins with Ganges and purified me thus. In all these, you who are so difficult to approach and apprehend, have become so easy to witness and enjoy the presence. On top of that you have possessed me transmuting me into your essence and with that accepting me as one your flock. I am mad with an infirm mind, an ignorant fool with no understanding whatsoever of Civanjanam, an evil sprit full of devilish forces in the heart and a dog that roams around the streets for this and that. But despite all these you have not only tolerated all my misdeeds but also showered me with your endless kindness. O Lord! It is so so impossible for me to appreciate your kindness, so immense it is!


We have to keep in mind the existential and psychiatric thrust of the whole of this Patikam and where in this verse Appar articulate what can be called the Saivite mode of CONFESSIONS that is NOT like that available among the Catholics where confessions are made to a human Father. Here consistent the philosophy of Temple City where over and above major and majestic Temples, little shrines in every street corner is recommended, we have a situation where the confessions are directed at BEING not as neutral and feelingless Pure Spirit but rather as a LOVING Father, one who graces even most despicable sinner with aruL nookku, the Look of Immense Love.

When the anma breaks through its ego defenses and SEES itself as what it really is, away from all masks one has been wearing and hiding one self with - as Brahmanah, Njaani, Rishi, Acarya, King and what not - then one would realize that one is a mad man, an ignorant fool, an devilish individual and a dog that roams around seeking this and that. This self realization, this atmanjaanam, is the precondition for the countless blessings of BEING and with that also a life free of mental and physical tortures.

When one REPENTS for all the weaknesses that one is and without hiding them by leading an inauthentic life, the GRACE of Siva will flow in and out and the waters of the heavenly Ganges that flows from the tuft of Siva, will be allowed the flood even the deepest recesses of the psyche and with that cleanse off all the dirt there.

Thus every little shrine where God is available most readily and in an icon form most meaningful to the individual, is in fact a clinic where psychotherapy is given freely by Siva Himself in His own way. This way of self-purification is available equally for all for BEING as Father is most kind and His kindness has no bounds whatsoever.

Philosophical Appar 6:95-9

Repenting and Confessing

The root cause of many ills of man are his egoistic arrogance symbolized for the Saivites by overbearing RavaNa who dared to shake off even Kailash where resides Siva with Parvati. Perhaps Appar saw such RavaNas in the kings of the times who equated themselves with God and sought to displace the worship of God with the worship of Kings. So it is not an accident that Appar notes and sings bravely against such arrogance and in that also sings eloquently on the need to root out this arrogance born of metaphysical ignorance induced by aaNavam, the Dark Killing Energy, which has also as a secondary meaning this arrogance.

Another widespread arrogance is that of the Brahmanahs who got away with their immensely illogical claim that they are the twice-born and are so by birth alone and hence are the only people who are spiritually matured and hence belong to the highest social order. The whole of history shows how the Brahmanahs twisted and turned history to substantiate the VarNasra Dharma and Sanskrit as Divine Language earning by this, the deep-seated hatred of the ordinary Hindus.

So as an antidote to this unbecoming arrogance of the kings and the priests, Appar outlines the characteristics of the genuinely religious and which avoid every element of this social arrogance. When a person matures spiritually and becomes aware of the inherent PURITY and that LOVE is the most endearing personality trait of such individuals, they begin to repent and confess how lowly evil wicked one is really - the kulam pollen (have an evil community as my community), kuNam pollen (have evil traits as my traits) etc. Such repentance and confessions overtly to the deities is actually declaring freedom from all arrogance, egotism such as that of Kings and Priests and who function only with the interest of becoming gods themselves. Such confessions cut across such arrogance and roots out even the slightest tendency in that direction thereby contributing towards becoming genuinely PURE.


குலம்பொல்லேன் குணம்பொல்லேன் குறியும் பொல்லேன்
குற்றமே பெரிதுடையேன் கோலமாய
நலம்பொல்லேன் நான்பொல்லேன் ஞானியல்லேன்
நல்லாரோடு இசைந்திலேன் நடுவே நின்ற
விலங்கல்லேன் விலங்கல்லா தொழிந்தேன் அல்லேன்
வெறுப்பனவும் மிகப்பெரிதும் பேச வல்லேன்
இலம்பொல்லேன் இரப்பதே ஈய மாட்டேன்
என்செய்வான் தோன்றினேன் ஏழையேனே!


ஐயனே! நான் நட்புகொண்டு சார்ந்திருக்கும் குலம் மிகவும் பொல்லாதது, என் உள்ளத்துப் பண்புகளாகிய குணங்களும் பொல்லாதவை என்பதொடு என அகத்து இயல்புகளை புறத்தேக் காட்டும் குறிகளும் பொல்லாதவையாக இருக்கின்றன. நல்லது செய்து ஊய்வதல்லாது பலவகையான குற்றங்களையே பெரிதும் செய்கின்ற அற்பனாகவும் இருக்கின்றேன். அழுக்குகளைத் தவிர்த்து அழகுளாகிய நலங்கள் யாதுமில்லாதவனாகவும் அதனால் நானே மிகப்பொல்லாதவனாகவும் சிவஞானத் தெளிவு யாதும் மில்லாத அஞ்ஞானியாகவும் இருக்கின்றேன். தெய்வப்பண்புகள் நிறைந்த நல்லார்களோடு இணங்கி அவர்கள் சூழலில் வாழவும் மாட்டேன். மிகக் கொடூர விலங்குகளுக்கும் மாந்தர்களுக்கும் இடைபட்ட யானை பசு போன்ற நல்ல விலங்குகளின் குணம் உடையவன் அல்லேன் என்பதொடு விலங்கின் இயல்பெல்லாம் கெடுத்து புனிதமான மானிடம் மகிழ்ந்தேன் அல்லேன். யாருடன் உரையாடினாலும் நாவடக்கமின்றி அவர்கள் என்பேச்சைக் கேட்ட மாத்திரத்தில் பெரிதும் என்னை வெறுத்து ஒதுக்கும் அளவிற்கு தீயன பேசவும் வல்லேன். விருந்தோம்பற்கு இல்லம் அமைக்காது, இரப்பதே தொழிலாகக்கொண்டு யாருக்கும் ஓர் சிறிதும் ஈய மனமில்லாது கருமியாக வாழ்கின்றேன். இப்படி வாழ்கின்ற எனக்கு ஏன் இந்த வாழ்க்கை அருளப்பட்டது , நானும் வாழும் ஓர் உயிராக தோன்றியுள்ளேன் என்று எனக்குத் தெரியவில்லை காண்.

குறிப்பு: மனநோய் உடல் நோய் ஆகியவற்றிற்கு ஆளாகும் மாந்தர்களின் இயல்புகளைத் தன்மேல் ஏற்றி இங்கே வரிசைப்படுத்துகின்றார் அப்பர் பெருமான்.


kulampolleen kuNampolleen kuRiyum pollen
kuRRamee peritudaiyeen koolamaaya
nalampolleen naan pollen njaanaiyalleen
nallaaroodu icaintileen naduvee ninRa
vilaGkalleen vilaGkallaa tozinteen alleen
veRuppanavum mikapperitum peeca valleen
ilampolleen irappatee iiya maaddeen
enceyvaan toonRineen eezaiyeenee!


I do not have a circle of friends and associates who are good. I do not have any personal qualities that are dear to all with behavioral and other signs that are appealing to all. I am also prone to do only the evil and ignoble without having any beauty in my personality. And out of my metaphysical ignorance I am also an evil person, despicable by all and who shuns the company of the good people. I am neither the cruel beasts nor the gentle beasts between the human and such beasts. I have not discarded the animal nature of myself and become the humanized human. I am also prone to speak nastily without the necessary self -control so that others really hate me. I do not maintain a home where guests are welcome but rather lead a miserly life where I only beg from others accumulate all without giving out anything. I don't know what to do and also do not know why I am blessed with an existence at all.


We have seen Appar, in a psychiatric vein, has been recommending temple worship and so forth where a person has to CONFESS not to individuals like gurus and so forth but directly to the deity of one's choice. In front of some shape of BEING, all the ego defenses must be shattered and self-understanding that removes all maskings must be gained and articulated overtly or silently to BEING who is the only one who has the power to cleanse the soul of all the evil karmic deposits and which are the root causes of all such ailments.

Now in this verse Appar goes to enumerate the various dispositions that are the likely the source of mental ailments projecting himself onto such individuals. Such people have a circle of friends who are themselves evil and hence who would reinforce the already existing evil tendencies. Overtly there will be no behavioral or other kinds of signs that would help others to see the good qualities in the person and with that respect him, love him so forth. Qualities and forms of speech that only breed DISLIKE and hatred show absence of social LOVE and acceptance and which would make life itself very miserable. We cannot neglect the community into which we are born and unless such a community LOVES and CHERISHES the company, sanity of mind and mental health are not possible.

Metaphysical IGNORANCE and with that absence of endearing aesthetic qualities are also another source of socially derived miseries. The psychically UGLY person with nothing beautiful about him and hence nothing endearing about him, will not be loved at all and such people will feel left out, thrown out of society from society and so forth. This is a social punishment that can be very painful.

Now another important aspect that Appar enumerates is burning the animal nature and becoming a genuinely humanized human being. A loveless human being is also prone to hate and dislike and in that also put down collectively a group of people and thrive in such degradations and denial of human rights not caring for injustice being done. Such individuals, no matter of what birth, are in fact animistic and hence evil in a way. Such a disposition, by the injustice it betrays, will also bring evil karmas that will spell out disasters and miseries of all kinds in their life.

Here it may be possible that Appar is criticizing severely the VarNasra Dharma with which he could not go along as he makes it clear in many verses.

Another trait that would count as evil is that of miserliness - the reluctance to GIVE and give freely whatever one can to the needy and hoard up whatever one accumulates even by begging. Such conducts enhance the atomicity and hence the possessiveness that comes along with it. Since such an attitude would DISTANCE the self from BEING and hence create opportunities for the invasion and occupation of the evil forces, they are also to be avoided.

Philosophical Appar 6:95-10

Love Unto Siva is the Most Endearing

Here we have Appar declaring something the same as the VaishNava Azwars - the material riches and happy and prosperous kingly life on earth are of little importance in relation to a life lived in the LOVE of BEING, be it Siva or VishNu. The sweetness of the taste of Divine Life is so great that not only there is nothing comparable to it but also unlike other pleasures, the pleasures enjoyed here do not diminish at all. The Divine Bliss, the Civanantam of the Saivites, the Niratiyasa Anantam of the VaishNavites, is such that it uproots totally the joys from all other kinds of tastes.

Thus there is transmutation of tastes and values, and uplifting the existence itself into the Divine Ground, the Inda-sim, the Beautiful Peak of Sulgi (c. 2000 BC). This lifting up in the spiritual ground of one's existence that feeds new values from within also provides NEW EYES whereby one is able to penetrate through the outer appearance and reach the inner core.

When a person gets the x-ray eyes to penetrate the surface and reach the hidden depths, and which is the function of genuine religious life, one can see even a leper or a CaNdaLa as truly religious if they happen to be people worshipping Siva earnestly. The point is that the inauthentic religious people are BLIND to the spiritual essence of the genuinely religious and care only for the externals such as the bodily appearance, the kind of profession they practice, and the kind of attire and symbols they wear.

The little minds care only for the externals while the genuinely spiritual minds for the inner core of the person and which is possible not because of erudite scholarship of Vedas and Scriptures and the chanting the mantras endlessly but only by transmuting self through cultivating LOVE unto all.


சங்கநிதி பதுமநிதி யிரண்டும் தந்து
தாரணியோடு வானாளத் தருவரேனும்
மங்குவார் அவர் செல்வம் மதிப்போம் அல்லோம்
மாதேவர்க்கு ஏகாந்தர் அல்லாராகில்
அங்கமெல்லாம் குறைந்து அழுகு தொழு நோயராய்
ஆவுரித்துத் தின்றுழலும் புலையரேனும்
கங்கைவார் சடைக்கரந்தார்க்கு அன்பராகில்
அவர் கண்டீர் நாம் வணங்கும் கடவுளாரே


பேரெண்களாகிய சங்க, பதுமம் போன்ற எண்ணிக்கையில் பொற்காசுகளை குவித்து இரண்டினையும் தருவதோடு மாட்டிலும் அல்லாது, இந்த பாரோடு வானுலகத்தையும் தந்து அவற்றை எனதாக்கி ஆளும் உரிமையைத் தந்தாலும், இப்படிப்பட்ட பொருளியற் செல்வங்கள் அருட்செல்வங்கள் போலல்லாது மங்கி இல்லாது போவதின், அவற்றை மெய்யான பொருள் என்று மதிப்போம் அல்லோம். மேலும் இப்படி நல்குவார் வேண்டுவதெல்லாம் பரம்பொருளின் அன்பே அருளே என்று இறைவனையே நினைக்கும் ஏகாந்தச் சிந்¨தையர் அல்லாதாராகில் அவர்களை நாம் வணங்குவோம் அல்லோம். மற்றும் இப்படிப்பட்ட இவ்வேகாந்தர், குட்ட நோயால் சதையெல்லாம் அழுகி அங்கங்கெல்லாம் குறைந்து வெறுக்கத்தக்க தோற்றத்தையுடையவராயினும், தொழில் வகையில் இறந்துபோம் பசுமாடுகளின் தோலுரித்து அதனைக்கொண்டு வாழும் சண்டாளர்களாகிய புலையர்கள் ஆயினும், அவற்றையெல்லாம் பொருட்படுத்தாது, உண்மையான முறையில் அவர்களே கங்கை ஓடும்சடையுடை சிவபெருமானுக்கு அன்பராகி நிற்பதைக் கண்டு, அவர்களையே நாம் கடவுளாகவே மதித்து வணங்குவோம் என்று கண்டுகொள்வீர்!


caGkaniti patumaniti uyiraNdum tantu
taaraNiyoodu vaanaaLat travareenum
maGkuvaar avar celvam matippoom alloom
maateevarkku eekaantar alaaraakil
aGkamellaam kuRaintu azuku tozu nooyaraay
aavurittut tinRuuzalum pulaiyareenum
kaGkai vaar sadaik karantaarrku anbaraakil
avar kaNdiir naam vaNagkum kadavuLaaree


Even if I am offered vast heaps of gold, the political power over not only the earth but also the heavens, since such wealth is of diminishing importance I will not cherish them at all. And furthermore if offered by people who are not single-minded in their worship and thought of Siva, I will not value them at all (as they would not be of any use for understanding Siva further) Now on the contrary if there are people with the sole thought of Siva and total love for Him, be they lepers with the flesh rotting away and thus of disgusting appearance, and people of the lowly profession of skinning the dead cows and living out from such income, you should know that I would readily worship such people as if gods (on earth)


Appar continues his tirade against the supremely unjust and injurious social practices that stand in the way of genuine religious life. The first is greediness for material wealth which is a mental disease and driven by which men commit great evils even in the name of religion. Related to this is Political Power, the desire to reign not only the whole of the earth but also the heavens. Since these are products of mental diseases and would please only people of such diseases, Appar boldly says that he would reject them totally especially when those who offer do not have any thoughts of Siva at all.

People whom he would respect are not the economically and politically powerful but rather the humble souls but who are great in their single-minded devotion to Siva. Such people may, for external appearance, be disgusting like the lepers whose bodily flesh is rotting away, or the Pulaiyas who are despicable not because of appearance but because of the their profession - skinning the dead cows and living off it. What Appar seeks to drive home with these very emotionally loaded words is that people who are deeply devoted to Siva, no matter of what physical appearance and profession, should be treated as if gods on earth.

In other words wealth, political power, physical appearance and caste differences should NOT be given any importance at all in the evaluation of spiritual worth of person. What matters is the intensity of Bakti, how fervently and deeply he worships Siva.



"" இருந்து மீள்விக்கப்பட்டது
இப்பக்கம் கடைசியாக 26 ஜனவரி 2013, 07:21 மணிக்குத் திருத்தப்பட்டது. இப்பக்கம் 1,288 முறைகள் அணுகப்பட்டது.